An Analysis of the Pāli Canon

Edited by

Russell Webb

Buddhist Publication Society
Kandy •Sri Lanka

The Wheel Publication No. 217/218/219/220

First BPS edition 1975
Second BPS edition 1991
Third BPS edition 2008

Copyright © 1991 by Russell Webb

ISBN 955–24–0048–1

BPS Online Edition © (2008)

Digital Transcription Source: BPS Transcription Project

For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted and redistributed in any medium. However, any such republication and redistribution is to be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis, and translations and other derivative works are to be clearly marked as such.



I. Textual Analysis

A. Vinaya Piṭaka—the Collection of Disciplinary Rules

1. Sutta Vibhaṅga
2. Khandhaka, subdivided into Mahāvagga and Cūḷavagga
3. Parivāra

B. Sutta Piṭaka— the Collection of the Buddha’s Discourses

1. Dīgha Nikāya
2. Majjhima Nikāya
3. Saṃyutta Nikāya
4. Aṅguttara Nikāya
5. Khuddaka Nikāya

C. Abhidhamma Piṭaka— the Collection of PhilosopHical Treatises

II. Index to the Canon
III. Bibliography

1. Translated Texts

A. Vinaya Piṭaka
B. Sutta Piṭaka
C. Abhidhamma Piṭaka

2. Anthologies
3. Devotional Manuals (Romanised Pali texts and translations)
4. Post-Canonical and Commentarial Literature

A. The Commentaries (in English translation)
B. Pali Exegeses (in English translation)
C. Non-Indian Pali Literature

5. Studies from Pali Sources

A. General Studies
B. Vinaya Studies
C. Sutta Studies
D. Abhidhamma Studies

6. Journals
7. Pali Grammars and Dictionaries
Appendix: Some On-line Refences


An Analysis of the Pali Canon was originally the work of A.C. March, the founder-editor of Buddhism in England (from 1943, The Middle Way), the quarterly journal of The Buddhist Lodge (now The Buddhist Society, London). It appeared in the issues for Volume 3 and was later off-printed as a pamphlet. Finally, after extensive revision by I.B. Horner (the late President of the Pali Text Society) and Jack Austin, it appeared as an integral part of A Buddhist Student’s Manual, published in 1956 by The Buddhist Society to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of its founding. The basic analysis of the Tipiṭaka appeared in The Mahā Bodhi, 37:19–42 (Calcutta 1929), and was reprinted in K.D.P. Wickremesinghe’s Biography of the Buddha (Colombo 1972).

In the present edition, the basic analysis of the Canon has been left in its original state although some minor corrections had to be made. However, it has been found possible to fully explore the Saṃyutta and Aṅguttara Nikāyas together with three important texts from the Khuddaka Nikāya: Udāna, Itivuttaka, and Suttanipāta. It was deemed unnecessary to give similar treatment to the Dhammapada, as this popular anthology is much more readily accessible. The Paṭisambhidāmagga has also been analysed.

The index (except for minor amendments) was originally prepared by G.F. Allen and first appeared in his book The Buddha’s Philosophy. In this edition it has been simplified by extensive substitution of Arabic for Roman numerals.

The Bibliography, a necessary adjunct in view of the reference nature of the whole work, has, however, been completely revised as a consequence of the vast output of books on the subject that have come on to the market over the past few decades. Indeed, it was originally intended to make this an exhaustive section of Pali works in the English language, past and present. A number of anthologies, however, include both suttas in their entirety and short extracts from the texts. In such cases the compiler has, where the works in question appear, only indicated the complete suttas, as it is hardly likely that brief passages in such (possibly out-of-print) books will be referred to by the student who can now so easily turn to complete texts. Moreover, to keep the Bibliography to a manageable size, it was also necessary to omit a number of anthologies which include selected translations available from other, more primary sources.

It is thus hoped that this short work will awaken in the reader a desire to study the original texts themselves, the most authoritative Buddhist documents extant. Space has precluded a detailed study of the Tipiṭaka from the standpoints of language and chronology, but the source books mentioned in the Bibliography will more than compensate for this omission.

Russell Webb
Bloomsbury, London
March 1991

I. Textual Analysis

The Pali Canon, also called the Tipiṭaka or “Three Baskets” (of doctrine), is divided into three major parts:

  1. Vinaya Piṭaka: The Collection of Disciplinary Rules.
  2. Sutta Piṭaka: The Collection of the Buddha’s Discourses.
  3. Abhidhamma Piṭaka: The Collection of Philosophical Treatises.

A. Vinaya Piṭaka—the Collection of Disciplinary Rules

1. Sutta Vibhaṅga

There are 220 rules and 7 legal procedures for monks consisting of eight classes:

  1. Four rules, if infringed, entail expulsion from the Order (pārājika). These are sexual intercourse, theft, taking a human life or inciting another to commit suicide, and falsely boasting of supernormal attainments.
  2. Thirteen rules entailing initial and subsequent meetings of the Sangha (saṅghādisesa).
  3. Two rules are indefinite (aniyata).
  4. Thirty rules entail expiation with forfeiture (nissaggiya pācittiya).
  5. Ninety-two rules entail expiation (pācittiya).
  6. Four rules require confession (pāṭidesanīya).
  7. Seventy-five rules are concerned with etiquette and decorum (sekhiya).
  8. Seven procedures are for the settlement of legal processes (adhikaraṇasamatha)

This section is followed by another called the Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga, providing similar guidance for nuns.

2. Khandhaka,
subdivided into Mahāvagga and Cūḷavagga

(a) Mahāvagga:

  1. Rules for admission to the Order.
  2. The Uposatha meeting and recital of the Pātimokkha (code of rules).
  3. Residence during the rainy season (vassa).
  4. The ceremony concluding the retreat (pavāraṇa).
  5. Rules for articles of dress and furniture.
  6. Medicine and food.
  7. The annual distribution of robes (kaṭhina).
  8. Rules for sick Bhikkhus, sleeping, and robe-material.
  9. The mode of executing proceedings by the Order.
  10. Proceedings in cases of schism.

(b) Cūḷavagga (or Cullavagga):

  1. Rules for dealing with offences that come before the Order.
  2. Procedures for putting a Bhikkhu on probation.
  3. Procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a Bhikkhu.
  4. Rules for settling legal procedures in the Order.
  5. Miscellaneous rules for bathing, dress, etc.
  6. Rules for dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
  7. Rules for schisms.
  8. Classes of Bhikkhus, and duties of teachers and novices (Sāmaṇera).
  9. Rules for exclusion from the Pātimokkha.
  10. Rules for the ordination and instruction of Bhikkhunīs.
  11. Account of the First Council, at Rājagaha.
  12. Account of the Second Council, at Vesālī.

3. Parivāra

Summaries and classification of the rules of the Vinaya arranged as a kind of catechism for instruction and examination purposes.

B. Sutta Piṭaka—
the Collection of the Buddha’s Discourses

The Sutta Piṭaka, the second main division of the Tipiṭaka, is divided into five sections or collections (Nikāyas) of discourses (suttas).

  1. Dīgha Nikāya.
  2. Majjhima Nikāya.
  3. Saṃyutta Nikāya.
  4. Aṅguttara Nikāya.
  5. Khuddaka Nikāya.

1. Dīgha Nikāya

The Collection of Long Discourses is arranged in three vaggas or sections:

(a) Sīlakkhanda Vagga

  1. Brahmajāla Sutta: “The Net of Brahma” or the Perfect Net, in which are caught all the 62 heretical forms of speculation concerning the world and the self taught by the Buddha’s contemporaries.
  2. Sāmaññaphala Sutta: “The Fruits of the Homeless Life.” The Buddha explains to King Ajātasattu the advantages of joining the Buddhist Order and renouncing the life of the world.
  3. Ambaṭṭha Sutta: Pride of birth and its fall. A dialogue with Ambaṭṭha on caste. Contains reference to the legend of King Okkāka, the traditional founder of the Sakya clan.
  4. Soṇadaṇḍa Sutta: Dialogue with the, brahmin Soṇadaṇḍa on the characteristics of the true brahmin.
  5. Kūṭadanta Sutta: Dialogue with the brahmin Kūṭadanta condemning animal sacrifice.
  6. Mahāli Sutta: Dialogue with Mahāli on deva-like vision and hearing, and the attainment of full enlightenment.
  7. Jāliya Sutta: On the nature of the life-principle as compared with the body.
  8. Kassapasīhanāda Sutta: A dialogue with the naked ascetic Kassapa against self-mortification.
  9. Poṭṭhapāda Sutta: A discussion with Poṭṭhapāda on the nature of the soul, in which the Buddha states the enquiry to be irrelevant and not conducive to enlightenment.
  10. Subha Sutta: A discourse, attributed to Ānanda, on conduct, concentration, and wisdom.
  11. Kevaḍḍha Sutta: The Buddha refuses to allow a Bhikkhu to perform a miracle. Story of the monk who visited the devas (deities) to question them.
  12. Lohicca Sutta: Dialogue with the brahmin Lohicca on the ethics of teaching.
  13. Tevijja Sutta: On the futility of a knowledge of the Vedas as means to attaining companionship with Brahma.

(b) Mahā Vagga

  1. Mahāpadāna Sutta: The Sublime Story of the Buddha Gotama and his six predecessors. Also, the Discourse on the Buddha Vipassi, describing his descent from the Tusita heaven to the commencement of his mission.
  2. Mahānidāna Sutta: On the “chain of causation” and theories of the soul.
  3. Mahāparinibbāna Sutta: The Great Discourse that records the passing of the Tathāgata into Parinibbāna.
  4. Mahāsudassana Sutta: The Great King of Glory. The story of a previous existence of the Buddha, as King Sudassana, told by the Buddha on his death-bed.
  5. Janāvāsabha Sutta: The Buddha relates the story of the yakkha (demon) Janāvāsabha to the people of Nādikā.
  6. Mahāgovinda Sutta: The heavenly musician Pañcasikha relates the story of Mahāgovinda to the Buddha, who states that he himself was Mahāgovinda.
  7. Mahāsamaya Sutta: The devas of the Pure Abode and their evolution.
  8. Sakkapañha Sutta: Sakka, the lord of devas, visits the Buddha, and learns from him that everything that originates is also subject to dissolution.
  9. Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness on the body, feelings, thoughts, and states of mind. With a commentary on the Four Noble Truths.
  10. Payāsi Sutta: Kumārakassapa converts Payāsi from the heresy that there is no future life or reward of actions.

(c) Pāṭika Vagga

  1. Pāṭika Sutta: Story of the disciple who follows other teachers because the Buddha does not work miracles or teach the origin of things.
  2. Udumbarikasīhanāda Sutta: The Buddha discusses asceticism with the ascetic Nigrodha.
  3. Cakkavattisīhanāda Sutta: Story of the universal king, the corruption of morals and their restoration, and the coming of the future Buddha Metteyya.
  4. Aggañña Sutta: A discussion on caste, and an exposition on the origin of things (as in No.24) down to the origin of the four castes.
  5. Sampasādanīya Sutta: A dialogue between the Buddha and Sāriputta, who describes the teaching of the Buddha and asserts his faith in him.
  6. Pāsādika Sutta: The Delectable Discourse. Discourse of the Buddha on the perfect and the imperfect teacher.
  7. Lakkhaṇa Sutta: The 32 marks of a Great Man.
  8. Sigālovāda Sutta: The Sigāla homily on the duties of the householder to the six classes of persons.
  9. Āṭānāṭiya Sutta: On the Four Great Kings and their spell for protection against evil.
  10. Saṅgīti Sutta: Sāriputta outlines the principles of the teaching in ten numerical groups.
  11. Dasuttara Sutta: Sāriputta outlines the doctrine in tenfold series.

2. Majjhima Nikāya

This division consists of 152 suttas of medium length arranged in 15 vaggas, roughly classified according to subject matter.

(a) Mūlapariyāya Vagga

  1. Mūlapariyāya Sutta: How states of consciousness originate.
  2. Sabbāsavā Sutta: On the elimination of the cankers.
  3. Dhammadāyāda Sutta: Exhorting the Bhikkhus to realise the importance of the Dhamma and the unimportance of their physical wants.
  4. Bhayabherava Sutta: On braving the fears and terrors of the forest. Also the Buddha’s account of his enlightenment.
  5. Anaṅgaṇa Sutta: A dialogue between Sāriputta and Moggallāna on the attainment of freedom from depravity.
  6. Ākaṅkheyya Sutta: On those things for which a Bhikkhu may wish.
  7. Vatthūpama Sutta: The parable of the soiled cloth and the defiled mind.
  8. Sallekha Sutta: On the elimination of self and false views. How to efface defilements.
  9. Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta: A discourse by Sāriputta on right views.
  10. Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: The same as DN 22, but without the detailed explanation of the Four Noble Truths.

(b) Sīhanāda Vagga

  1. Cūḷasīhanāda Sutta: See No. 12 below.
  2. Mahāsīhanāda Sutta: The short and the long “challenge” suttas. The futility of ascetic practices.
  3. Mahādukkhakkhandha Sutta: See No. 14 below.
  4. Cūḷadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The long and the short discourses on the suffering inherent in sensual pleasures.
  5. Anumāna Sutta: By Moggallāna, on the value of introspection (There is no reference to the Buddha throughout).
  6. Cetokhila Sutta: On the five mental bondages.
  7. Vanapattha Sutta: On the advantages and disadvantages of the forest life.
  8. Madhupiṇḍika Sutta: The Buddha gives a brief outline of his teaching, which Kaccāna amplifies.
  9. Dvedhāvitakka Sutta: The parable of the lure of sensuality. Repetition of the Enlightenment as in No. 4.
  10. Vitakkasaṇṭhāna Sutta: Methods of meditation to dispel undesirable thoughts.

(c) Tatiya Vagga

  1. Kakacūpama Sutta: The simile of the saw. On the control of the feelings and the mind under the most severe provocation.
  2. Alagaddūpama Sutta: Simile of the water-snake. Holding wrong views of the Dhamma is like seizing a snake by the tail.
  3. Vammika Sutta: The simile of the smouldering ant-hill as the human body.
  4. Rathavinīta Sutta: Puṇṇa explains the purpose of the holy life to Sāriputta.
  5. Nivāpa Sutta: Parable of Māra as a sower or hunter laying baits for the deer.
  6. Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Quest. The Buddha’s account of his renunciation, search, and attainment of enlightenment.
  7. Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta: The short “elephant’s footprint” simile, on the Bhikkhu’s training.
  8. Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta: The long “elephant’s footprint” simile, on the Four Noble Truths.
  9. Mahāsāropama Sutta: On the dangers of gain, honour and fame. Said to have been delivered when Devadatta left the Order.
  10. Cūḷasāropama Sutta: Development of the preceding sutta. On attaining the essence of the Dhamma.

(d) Mahāyamaka Vagga

  1. Cūḷagosiṅga Sutta: A conversation of the Buddha with three Bhikkhus, who speak on harmonious living and relate their attainments to him.
  2. Mahāgosiṅga Sutta: A conversation between six Bhikkhus who discuss what kind of monk makes the forest beautiful.
  3. Mahāgopālaka Sutta: On the eleven bad and good qualities of a herdsman and a monk.
  4. Cūḷagopālaka Sutta: Simile of the foolish and wise herdsman crossing the river.
  5. Cūḷasaccaka Sutta: A discussion between the Buddha and the debater Saccaka on the nature of the five aggregates and other topics.
  6. Mahāsaccaka Sutta: The account of the Buddha’s asceticism and enlightenment, with instructions on right meditation.
  7. Cūḷataṇhāsaṅkhaya Sutta: Sakka asks the Buddha about freedom from craving and satisfactorily repeats his reply to Moggallāna.
  8. Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhaya Sutta: Refutation of the wrong view of a Bhikkhu who thinks that it is consciousness that transmigrates.
  9. Mahā-assapura Sutta: See No. 40 below.
  10. Cūḷa-assapura Sutta: The great and the small discourses given at Assapura on the duties of an ascetic.

(e) Cūḷayamaka Vagga

  1. Sāleyyaka Sutta: A discourse to the brahmins of Sālā. Why some beings go to heaven and some to hell.
  2. Verañjaka Sutta: The same discourse repeated to the householders of Verañjā.
  3. Mahāvedalla Sutta: A psychological discourse by Sāriputta to Mahākoṭṭhita.
  4. Cūḷavedalla Sutta: A psychological discourse by the Bhikkhunī Dhammadinnā to the lay-devotee Visākha.
  5. Cūḷadhammasamādāna Sutta: See No. 46 below.
  6. Mahādhammasamādāna Sutta: The short and long discourses on the results of good and bad conduct.
  7. Vīmaṃsaka Sutta: On the right methods of investigation of the Buddha.
  8. Kosambiya Sutta: A discourse to the Bhikkhus of Kosambi on the evil of quarrelling.
  9. Brahmanimantanika Sutta: The Buddha converts Baka the Brahma from the heresy of permanency.
  10. Māratajjanīya Sutta: Moggallāna admonishes Māra.

(f) Gahapati Vagga

  1. Kandaraka Sutta: Discourse on the four kinds of personalities, and the steps to liberation.
  2. Aṭṭhakanāgara Sutta: A discourse by Ananda on the ways of attainment of Nibbāna.
  3. Sekha Sutta: The Buddha opens a new meeting hall at Kapilavatthu, and Ananda discourses on the training of the disciple.
  4. Potaliya Sutta: The Buddha explains to Potaliya the real significance of the abandonment of worldliness.
  5. Jīvaka Sutta: The Buddha explains the ethics of meat-eating.
  6. Upāli Sutta: The conversion of Upāli the Jain.
  7. Kukkuravatika Sutta: A dialogue on kamma between the Buddha and two ascetics.
  8. Abhayarājakumāra Sutta: The Jain Nātaputta sends Prince Abhaya to question the Buddha on the condemnation of Devadatta.
  9. Bahuvedanīya Sutta: On different classifications of feelings and the gradation of pleasure.
  10. Apaṇṇaka Sutta: On the “Certain Doctrine,” against various heresies.

(g) Bhikkhu Vagga

  1. Ambalaṭṭhikarāhulovāda Sutta: The discourse on falsehood given by the Buddha to Rāhula.
  2. Mahārāhulovāda Sutta: Advice to Rāhula on contemplation, stressing mindfulness of breathing.
  3. Cūḷamāluṅkya Sutta: Why the Buddha does not answer certain types of speculative questions.
  4. Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta: On the five lower fetters.
  5. Bhaddāli Sutta: The confession of Bhaddāli, and the Buddha’s counsel.
  6. Laṭukikopama Sutta: Advice on renunciation of the world.
  7. Cātuma Sutta: Advice to boisterous Bhikkhus at Cātuma.
  8. Nālakapāna Sutta: The Buddha questions Anuruddha concerning certain points of the Dhamma.
  9. Gulissāni Sutta: Rules for those who, like Gulissāni, live in the forest.
  10. Kīṭāgiri Sutta: The conduct to be followed by various classes of Bhikkhus.

(h) Paribbājaka Vagga

  1. Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta: The Buddha visits the ascetic Vacchagotta and claims that he is called tevijja (possessing the three-fold knowledge) because he has recollection of his previous lives, supernormal vision, and knowledge of the way to the elimination of the taints (āsava).
  2. Aggivacchagotta Sutta: The danger of theorising about the world, etc.
  3. Mahāvacchagotta Sutta: Further explanation to Vacchagotta on the conduct of lay disciples and Bhikkhus.
  4. Dīghanakha Sutta: The Buddha refutes the ascetic Dīghanakha. Sāriputta attains Arahatship.
  5. Māgandiya Sutta: The Buddha relates his renunciation of the life of the senses, and speaks on the abandonment of sensual desires.
  6. Sandaka Sutta: Ānanda refutes various wrong views in discussion with the ascetic Sandaka.
  7. Māhasakuludāyi Sutta: On the five reasons why the Buddha is honoured.
  8. Samaṇamaṇḍika Sutta: On the qualities of perfect virtue.
  9. Cūḷasakuludāyi Sutta: The Jain leader Nātaputta, and the way to true happiness.
  10. Vekhanassa Sutta: A repetition of part of the preceding sutta, with additional matter on the five senses.

(i) Rāja Vagga

  1. Ghaṭīkāra Sutta: The Buddha tells Ānanda of his previous existence as Jotipāla.
  2. Raṭṭhapāla Sutta: The story of Raṭṭhapāla, whose parents endeavoured in vain to dissuade him, from entering the Sangha.
  3. Makhādeva Sutta: The story of the Buddha’s previous life as King Makhādeva.
  4. Madhurā Sutta: A discourse given after the Buddha’s decease by Kaccāna to King Avantiputta on the real meaning of caste.
  5. Bodhirājakumāra Sutta: The Buddha tells the story of his renunciation and enlightenment as in nos. 26 and 36 above.
  6. Aṅgulimāla Sutta: Story of the conversion of Aṅgulimāla, the robber chief.
  7. Piyajātikā Sutta: The Buddha’s counsel to a man who has just lost a son, and the dispute between King Pasenadi and his wife thereon.
  8. Bāhitika Sutta: Ānanda answers a question on conduct put by Pasenadi who presents him with his cloak.
  9. Dhammacetiya Sutta: Pasenadi visits the Buddha and extols the holy life.
  10. Kaṇṇakatthala Sutta: A conversation between the Buddha and Pasenadi on caste, the devas, and Brahma.

(j) Brāhmaṇa Vagga

  1. Brahmāyu Sutta: On the thirty-two marks of a Great Man, the Buddha’s daily routine, and the conversion of the brahmin Brahmāyu.
  2. Sela Sutta: The brahmin Sela sees the thirty-two marks of a Buddha and is converted (The same story is related in Suttanipāta 3:7).
  3. Assalāyana Sutta: The brahmin Assalāyana discusses caste with the Buddha. An important presentation of the Buddha’s teaching on this subject.
  4. Ghoṭamukha Sutta: The brahmin Ghoṭamukha questions the monk Udena on the value of the life of renunciation, and builds an assembly hall for the Sangha.
  5. Caṅkī Sutta: Discourse on brahmin doctrines, and the Buddha’s way to realisation of ultimate truth.
  6. Esukāri Sutta: Discourse on caste and its functions.
  7. Dhānañjāni Sutta: Sāriputta tells the brahmin Dhānañjāni that family duties are no excuse for wrongdoing.
  8. Vāseṭṭha Sutta: A discourse, mostly in verse, on the nature of the true brahmin (This recurs in Suttanipāta 3:9).
  9. Subha Sutta: On whether a man should remain a householder or leave the world.
  10. Saṅgārava Sutta: The brahmin woman who accepted the Dhamma, and a discourse on the holy life. Also repetition of parts of nos. 24 and 34 above.

(k) Devadaha Vagga

  1. Devadaha Sutta: The Buddha discourses on the attainment of the goal by the living of a skilful life.
  2. Pañcattaya Sutta: On five theories of the soul, and that the way of release (Nibbāna) does not depend on any of them.
  3. Kinti Sutta: Rules for Bhikkhus who dispute about the Dhamma and who commit transgressions.
  4. Samāgama Sutta: After the death of Nātaputta, the Buddha’s discourse on dispute and harmony.
  5. Sunakkhatta Sutta: The simile of extracting the arrow of craving.
  6. Āneñjasappāya Sutta (or: Ānañjasappāya Sutta): Meditations on impassibility, the attainments, and true release.
  7. Gaṇakamoggallāna Sutta: A discourse to Gaṇakamoggallāna on the training of disciples.
  8. Gopakamoggalāna Sutta: After the decease of the Buddha, Ānanda explains to Vassakāra that the Dhamma is now the only guide.
  9. Mahāpuṇṇama Sutta: The Buddha answers the questions of a Bhikkhu concerning the khandhas.
  10. Cūḷapuṇṇama Sutta: A discourse on the untrue and true man.

(l) Amupada Vagga

  1. Anupada Sutta: The Buddha praises Sāriputta and his analysis of mind.
  2. Chabbisodhana Sutta: On the questions to ask a Bhikkhu who declares he has attained Arahantship.
  3. Sappurisa Sutta: On the good and bad qualities of a Bhikkhu.
  4. Sevitabbāsevitabba Sutta: Sāriputta expounds the right way to live the holy life.
  5. Bahudhātuka Sutta: Lists of elements and principles in a dialogue between the Buddha and Ananda.
  6. Isigili Sutta: The Buddha on Paccekabuddhas.
  7. Mahācattārīsaka Sutta: Exposition of the Noble Eightfold Path.
  8. Ānāpānasati Sutta: Mindfulness of breathing.
  9. Kāyagatāsati Sutta: Meditation on the body.
  10. Saṅkhārupapatti Sutta: On the development of the five qualities enabling a Bhikkhu to determine the conditions of his rebirth.

(m) Suññata Vagga

  1. Cūḷasuññata Sutta: Meditation on emptiness.
  2. Mahāsuññata Sutta: Instruction to Ānanda on the practice of meditation on emptiness.
  3. Acchariyabbhūtadhamma Sutta: On the marvellous life of a Bodhisatta. A repetition of part of DN 14, but applied to the Buddha himself.
  4. Bakkula Sutta: Bakkula converts his friend Acelakassapa.
  5. Dantabhūmi Sutta: By the simile of elephant training, the Buddha shows how one should instruct another in the Dhamma.
  6. Bhūmija Sutta: Bhūmija answers the questions of Prince Jayasena.
  7. Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha explains emancipation of mind to the householder Pañcakaṅga.
  8. Upakkilesa Sutta: The Buddha appeases the quarrels of the Bhikkhus of Kosambi and discourses on right meditation.
  9. Bālapaṇḍita Sutta: On rewards and punishments after death.
  10. Devadūta Sutta: On the fate of those who neglect the messengers of death.

(n) Vibhaṅga Vagga

  1. Bhaddekaratta Sutta: A poem of four verses, with a commentary on striving.
  2. Ānandabhaddekaratta Sutta: Ānanda’s exposition of the same poem.
  3. Mahākaccanabhaddekaratta Sutta: Mahākaccāna expounds the same poem.
  4. Lomasakaṅgiyabhaddekaratta Sutta: The Buddha expounds the same poem to Lomasakaṅgiya.
  5. Cūḷakammavibhaṅga Sutta: The Buddha explains the various results of different kinds of kamma.
  6. Mahākammavibhaṅga Sutta: The Buddha refutes those who deny the operation of kamma.
  7. Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta: The analysis of the six senses.
  8. Uddesavibhaṅga Sutta: Mahākaccāna speaks on an aspect of consciousness.
  9. Araṇavibhaṅga Sutta: The middle path between two extremes, and the opposite courses that lead to conflicts and to their cessation.
  10. Dhātuvibhaṅga Sutta: The story of Pukkusāti who recognises the Master by his teaching. The analysis of the elements.
  11. Saccavibhaṅga Sutta: Statement of the Four Noble Truths. A commentary thereon by Sāriputta.
  12. Dakkhiṇavibhaṅga Sutta: On gifts and givers.

(o) Saḷāyatana Vagga

  1. Anāthapiṇḍikovāda Sutta: The death of Anāthapiṇḍika, his rebirth in the Tusita heaven, and his appearance to the Buddha.
  2. Channovāda Sutta: Story of the Thera Channa who, when sick, was instructed by Sāriputta, but finally committed suicide.
  3. Puṇṇovāda Sutta: The Buddha’s instruction to Puṇṇa on bearing pleasure and pain.
  4. Nandakovāda Sutta: Nandaka catechises Mahāpajāpatī and 500 Bhikkhunīs on impermanence.
  5. Cūḷarāhulovāda Sutta: The Buddha takes Rāhula to the forest and questions him on impermanence. The devas come to listen to the discourse.
  6. Chachakka Sutta: On the Six Sixes (of the senses).
  7. Mahāsaḷāyatanika Sutta: On the right knowledge of the senses.
  8. Nagaravindeyya Sutta: The Buddha’s instruction on the kinds of ascetics and brahmins who are to be honoured.
  9. Piṇḍapātapārisuddhi Sutta: Instruction to Sāriputta on the training of the disciple.
  10. Indriyabhāvanā Sutta: The Buddha rejects the methods of the brahmin Pārāsariya for subduing the senses, and expounds his own method.

3. Saṃyutta Nikāya

This is the “grouped” or “connected” series of suttas which either deal with a specific doctrine or devolve on a particular personality. There are fifty-six saṃyuttas divided into five vaggas containing 2,889 suttas.

(a) Sagātha Vagga

  1. Devata Saṃyutta: Questions of devas.
  2. Devaputta Saṃyutta: Questions of the sons of devas.
  3. Kosala Saṃyutta: Anecdotes of King Pasenadi of Kosala.
  4. Māra Saṃyutta: Māra’s hostile acts against the Buddha and disciples.
  5. Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta: Māra’s unsuccessful seduction of nuns and his arguments with them.
  6. Brahma Saṃyutta: Brahma Sahampati requests the Buddha to preach the Dhamma to the world.
  7. Brāhmaṇa Saṃyutta: Bhāradvāja brahmin’s encounter with the Buddha and his conversion.
  8. Vaṅgīsa Saṃyutta: Vaṅgīsa, the foremost poet among the Bhikkhus, tells of his eradication of lust.
  9. Vana Saṃyutta: Forest deities direct undeveloped Bhikkhus on the right path.
  10. Yakkha Saṃyutta: Demons’ encounters with the Buddha and with nuns.
  11. Sakka Saṃyutta: The Buddha enumerates the qualities of Sakka, King of the Gods.

(b) Nidāna Vagga

  1. Nidāna Saṃyutta: The explanation of Paṭiccasamuppāda (the doctrine of dependent origination).
  2. Abhisamaya Saṃyutta: The encouragement to attain penetration of the Dhamma.
  3. Dhātu Saṃyutta: The description of physical, mental, and abstract elements.
  4. Anamatagga Saṃyutta: On the “incalculable beginning” (of saṃsāra).
  5. Kassapa Saṃyutta: Exhortation of Kassapa.
  6. Lābhasakkāra Saṃyutta: “Gains, favours and flattery.”
  7. Rāhula Saṃyutta: The instructing of Rāhula.
  8. Lakkhaṇa Saṃyutta: Questions of Lakkhaṇa on petas (ghosts).
  9. Opamma Saṃyutta: Various points of Dhamma illustrated by similes.
  10. Bhikkhu Saṃyutta: Admonitions of the Buddha and Moggallāna to the Bhikkhus.

(c) Khandha Vagga

  1. Khandha Saṃyutta: The aggregates, physical and mental, that constitute the “individual.”
  2. Rādha Saṃyutta: Questions of Rādha.
  3. Diṭṭhi Saṃyutta: Delusive views arise from clinging to the aggregates.
  4. Okkantika Saṃyutta: Entering the Path through confidence (saddhā) and through wisdom (paññā).
  5. Uppāda Saṃyutta: Arising of the aggregates leads to dukkha.
  6. Kilesa Saṃyutta: Defilements arise from the sixfold sense base and sense-consciousness.
  7. Sāriputta Saṃyutta: Sāriputta answers Ānanda’s question concerning the calming of the senses.
  8. Nāga Saṃyutta: Enumeration of four kinds of nāga (serpents).
  9. Supaṇṇa Saṃyutta: Enumeration of four kinds of garuda (magical birds).
  10. Gandhabbakāya Saṃyutta: Description of the gandhabbas (celestial musicians).
  11. Valāhaka Saṃyutta: Description of the cloud spirits.
  12. Vacchagotta Saṃyutta: Vacchagotta’s metaphysical questions.
  13. Samādhi Saṃyutta: Enumeration of the four types of practisers of the jhānas (meditative absorptions).

(d) Saḷāyatana Vagga

  1. Saḷāyatana Saṃyutta: The sixfold sense base and the correct attitude towards it.
  2. Vedanā Saṃyutta: The three kinds of feeling and the correct attitude towards them.
  3. Mātugāma Saṃyutta: The destinies of women according to their qualities.
  4. Jambukhādaka Saṃyutta: Questions of the wanderer Jambukhādaka to Sāriputta.
  5. Sāmaṇḍaka Saṃyutta: Questions of the wanderer Sāmaṇḍaka to Sāriputta.
  6. Moggallāna Saṃyutta: Moggallāna explains the jhānas to the Bhikkhus.
  7. Citta Saṃyutta: Senses and sense-objects are not intrinsically evil, only the unwholesome desires that arise through contact with them.
  8. Gāmaṇi Saṃyutta: The definitions of “wrathful” and “kindly.”
  9. Asaṅkhata Saṃyutta: The Unconditioned (Nibbāna).
  10. Avyākata Saṃyutta: Speculative questions put by King Pasenadi to Khema, Anuruddha, Sāriputta, and Moggallāna.

(c) Mahā Vagga

  1. Magga Saṃyutta: The Noble Eightfold Path.
  2. Bojjhaṅga Saṃyutta: The seven factors of enlightenment (mindfulness, investigation, energy, happiness, calm, concentration, and equanimity).
  3. Satipaṭṭhāna Saṃyutta: The four foundations of mindfulness.
  4. Indriya Saṃyutta: The five faculties (confidence, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom).
  5. Sammappadhāna Saṃyutta: The four right efforts.
  6. Bala Saṃyutta: The five powers (as for the faculties above).
  7. Iddhipāda Saṃyutta: The four psychic powers (will, energy, thought, and investigation).
  8. Anuruddha Saṃyutta: Supernormal powers attained by Anuruddha through mindfulness.
  9. Jhāna Saṃyutta: The four jhānas.
  10. Ānāpāna Saṃyutta: Mindfulness of breathing.
  11. Sotāpatti Saṃyutta: Description of a “Stream-Enterer.”
  12. Sacca Saṃyutta: The Four Noble Truths.

4. Aṅguttara Nikāya

In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, the division is a purely numerical one. There are eleven classified groups (nipātas), the subject of the first being single items, followed by groups of two items, and so on, to the final group of eleven items. Each nipāta is divided into vaggas, each of which contains ten or more suttas, there being 2,308 suttas in all.

  1. Ekaka Nipāta: The mind: Concentrated/unconcentrated, trained/untrained, cultivated/uncultivated; exertion; diligence; the Buddha, Sāriputta, Moggallāna, Mahākassapa; views: Right/wrong; concentration: Right/wrong.
  2. Duka Nipāta: Two kinds of kamma (either producing results in this life or leading to rebirth); cause of origin of good and evil; hopes and desires; gain and longevity; two kinds of gifts (that of material things and that of Dhamma); two assemblies of Bhikkhus: Those who have realised/not realised the Four Noble Truths, and those who live/do not live in harmony.
  3. Tika Nipāta: Three offences of body, speech, and mind; three praiseworthy acts: Generosity, renunciation, maintenance of parents; exertion of checking growth of unarisen evil states, developing unarisen good states, removing arisen evil states; heretical views: That pleasant and painful and neither-pleasant-nor-painful experiences are caused by previous actions, that these experiences are providential, that these experiences are causeless.
  4. Catukka Nipāta: Undisciplined persons lack conduct, concentration, insight, emancipation; the ignorant increase demerit by praising the unworthy, blaming the worthy, rejoicing when one should not rejoice, not rejoicing when one should rejoice; four kinds of persons: Neither wise nor pious, not wise but pious, wise but impious, both wise and pious; Bhikkhus should remain content with their robes, alms, dwelling-places and medicines; four kinds of happiness: Living in a suitable environment, association with a well-developed man, self-realisation, accumulated merit in the past; the four “divine abodes”: Loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity; four qualities guarding a Bhikkhu against lapsing: Observation of sīla, control of the sense-doors, moderation in eating, constant mindfulness; four ways of self-concentration: For a happy condition in this life, for knowledge and insight, for mindfulness and self-possession, for destruction of the defilements; four persons fostering hatred, hypocrisy, gains and honours other than connected with the Dhamma; four mistaken views: Impermanence for permanence, pain for pleasure, non-self for self, impurity for purity; four faults of ascetics and brahmins: Drinking fermented liquor, addiction to sense pleasures, accepting money, earning their livelihood by unethical means; four fields of merit-bringing happiness: Rightly believing the Buddha as fully enlightened, the Dhamma as well expounded, the Sangha as well-established, the disciples as being free from impurities; four ways of living together: The vile with the vile, the vile with the good, the good with the vile, the good with the good; offering food gives the recipient: Long life, beauty, happiness, physical strength; four conditions for worldly prosperity: Persistent effort, protecting one’s earnings, good friendship, balanced livelihood; four conditions for spiritual prosperity: Confidence, morality, charity, wisdom; four families of snakes to whom one should extend loving-kindness; four right efforts; four unthinkables: The sphere of a Buddha, the jhānas, kamma and result, speculating over the origin of the world; four pilgrimages: To the sites of the Buddha’s birth, enlightenment, first sermon and decease; four kinds of beneficial/non-beneficial speech: Truthfulness/lying, non-backbiting/backbiting, gentle/harsh, thoughtful/frivolous; four essential qualities: Morality, concentration, wisdom and emancipation; four faculties: Confidence, energy, mindfulness, concentration; the four elements; four persons worthy of monuments: The Buddha, Paccekabuddhas, Arahants, “Wheel-turning” kings; Bhikkhus should not retire to the forest if given to: Lust, malice, envy, or lacking commonsense.
  5. Pañcaka Nipāta: Five good characteristics of a disciple: Reverence, modesty, abstinence from unskilful acts, energy, wisdom; five mental hindrances: Sensual lust, ill will, sloth, restlessness and worry, sceptical doubt; five objects of meditation: The impure, non-self, death, disagreeableness of food, not finding delight in the world; five evil qualities: Not free from passion, hatred, delusion, hypocrisy, malice; five good acts: Loving actions of body, speech and mind, observance of virtue, and holding to right views.
  6. Chakka Nipāta: Sixfold duty of a Bhikkhu: Abstaining from distracting work, arguments, sleep and company; humility; association with the wise.
  7. Sattaka Nipāta: Seven kinds of wealth: Reverence, good conduct, modesty, abstinence from unskilful acts, learning, renunciation, wisdom; seven kinds of attachment: Requesting favours, hatred, mistaken confidence, doubt, pride, worldly existence, ignorance.
  8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta: Eight causes of mindfulness/almsgiving/earthquakes.
  9. Navaka Nipāta: Nine contemplations: Impurity, death, disagreeableness of food, indifference to the world, impermanence, suffering resulting from impermanence, non-self, renunciation, equanimity; nine kinds of persons: Those who have trod the four paths to Nibbāna and experience the “fruits” together with the worldling, etc.
  10. Dasaka Nipāta: Ten contemplations: Impermanence, non-self, death, disagreeableness of food, indifference to the world, bone, and four stages of a decomposing corpse: Worm-infested, black with decay, fissured through decay, bloated; ten kinds of purification through right knowledge, right liberation, and the eight steps of the Noble Eightfold Path.
  11. Ekadasaka Nipāta: Eleven kinds of happiness/ways to Nibbāna/good and bad characteristics of a herdsman and a Bhikkhu.

5. Khuddaka Nikāya

This is the division of the shorter books of the Sutta Piṭaka, the “Division of Small Books,” as Buddhaghosa called it. This Nikāya appears to have grown up generally after the older Nikāyas were closed and probably was incorporated into the Canon later. There are fifteen main divisions:

  1. Khuddakapāṭha: The “Text of Small Passages” contains:

    1. Saraṇattaya: The thrice-repeated “Refuge Formula” for all Buddhists.
    2. Dasasikkhāpada: The Ten Precepts binding on Sāmaṇeras (novices).
    3. Dvattiṃsakāra: List of the 32 constituents of the body.
    4. Kumārapañhā: Catechism of ten questions for Sāmaṇeras.
    5. Maṅgala Sutta: A poem on the “greatest blessings” (maṅgala).
    6. Ratana Sutta: A poem on the Three Jewels: Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha.
    7. Tirokuḍḍa Sutta (or: Tirokuṭṭa Sutta): A poem on the offerings to be made to the ghosts of departed relatives.
    8. Nidhikaṇḍa Sutta: A poem on the storing up of true treasure.
    9. Metta Sutta: A poem on loving-kindness.
  2. Dhammapada: The Dhamma Path. A big part of this is known by heart by every Buddhist. It consists of 423 verses arranged in 26 vaggas.
  3. Udāna: A collection, in eight vaggas, of eighty udānas or “Solemn Utterances” of the Buddha. They are mostly in verse and each is accompanied by a prose account of the circumstances which called it forth:

    1. Bodhi Vagga: Describes certain events following the Buddha’s enlightenment, including the famous discourse to Bāhiya which stresses living in the present moment.
    2. Mucalinda Vagga: This vagga is named after the Nāga king who shielded the Buddha with his (cobra) hood.
    3. Nanda Vagga: The Buddha convinces his half-brother, Nanda, of the hollowness of worldly existence. Also contains admonitions to the Sangha.
    4. Meghiya Vagga: Ignoring the advice of the Buddha, Meghiya retires to a mango grove to practise meditation but his mind is soon assailed with unhealthy thoughts. On returning to the Buddha he is told that five factors should be cultivated by one with an undeveloped mind: good friendship, morality, profitable conversation, determination, and insight. Also contains the stories of Sundari and the assault on Sāriputta by a yakkha.
    5. Soṇathera Vagga: Contains a visit of King Pasenadi to the Buddha, the discourse to the leper Suppabuddha, the elucidation of the eight characteristics of the Sāsana, and the first year of the Bhikkhu-life of Sona.
    6. Jaccandha Vagga: Contains the Buddha’s hint at his passing away, Pasenadi’s dialogue, and the story of the king who caused men, blind from birth, to each feel and describe an elephant (illustrative of partial realisation of truth).
    7. Cūḷa Vagga: Contains minor episodes, mainly concerning individual Bhikkhus.
    8. Pāṭaligāma Vagga: Contains the famous definition of Nibbāna as being unborn, unbecome, unmade, uncompounded; the Buddha’s last meal and his admonition to Ānanda over Cunda; and the visit to Pāṭaligāma where the Buddha enunciated the five advantages of leading a pure life and the five disadvantages of not doing so.
  4. Itivuttaka: A collection of 112 short suttas in four nipātas, each accompanied with verses. The collection takes its name from the words usually introducing each set of verses: iti vuccati, “thus it is said.” The work comprises the ethical teachings of the Buddha:

    1. Ekaka Nipāta: Three vaggas. Lust, ill will, delusion, wrath, spite, pride, ignorance, craving, schism, lying, stinginess, are condemned; mindfulness, association with the wise, concord, mental peace, happiness, diligence, generosity and loving-kindness are praised.
    2. Duka Nipāta: Two vaggas. Elucidates guarding of the sense-doors and moderation in eating, skilful actions, healthy habits and correct views, serenity and seclusion, shame and dread, the two kinds of Nibbāna, and the virtues of leading an energetic ascetic life.
    3. Tika Nipāta: Five vaggas. Categorises factors which are threefold: evil roots, elements, feelings, thirsts, cankers, etc., and proclaims the ideal life of a Bhikkhu.
    4. Catukka Nipāta: Categorises factors which are fourfold: Bhikkhus’ necessities, Noble Truths, etc., and emphasises purity of mind for a Bhikkhu.
  5. Suttanipāta: “Collection of Suttas.” This comprises five vaggas containing 71 suttas in all. The suttas, each containing from eight to fifty verses, are in verse with introductions in either verse or prose.
    1. Uragavagga:

      1. Uraga Sutta: The Bhikkhu who discards all human passions (anger, hatred, craving, etc.) and is free from delusion and fear, is compared to a snake which has shed its skin.
      2. Dhaniya Sutta: The complacent “security” of a worldling is contrasted with the genuine security of the Buddha.
      3. Khaggavisāṇa Sutta: The wandering life of a Bhikkhu is praised. Family and social ties are to be avoided in view of their saṃsāric attachments, excepting the “good friend” (kalyāṇamitta).
      4. Kasībhāradvāja Sutta: Socially useful or mundane labour is contrasted with the no less important efforts of the Buddha striving for Nibbāna.
      5. Cunda Sutta: The Buddha enumerates four kinds of samanas: A Buddha, an Arahant, a conscientious Bhikkhu, a fraudulent Bhikkhu.
      6. Parābhava Sutta: The “causes of personal downfall” in the moral and spiritual domains are enumerated.
      7. Vasala or Aggika Bhāradvāja Sutta: In refutation of the charge “outcast,” the Buddha explains that it is by actions, not lineage, that one becomes an outcast or a brahmin.
      8. Metta Sutta: The constituents of the practice of loving-kindness towards all beings.
      9. Hemavata Sutta: Two yakkhas have their doubts about the qualities of the Buddha resolved by him. The Buddha continues by describing the path of deliverance from death.
      10. Āḷavaka Sutta: The Buddha answers the questions of the yakkha Āḷavaka concerning happiness, understanding, and the path to Nibbāna.
      11. Vijaya Sutta: An analysis of the body into its (impure) constituent parts, and the mention of the Bhikkhu who attains Nibbāna through understanding the body’s true nature.
      12. Muni Sutta: The idealistic conception of a muni or sage who leads a solitary life freed from the passions.
    2. Cūḷavagga:

      1. Ratana Sutta: A hymn to the Three Jewels: Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
      2. Āmagandha Sutta: Kassapa Buddha refutes the Brahmanic view of defilement through eating meat and states that this can only come about through an evil mind and corresponding actions.
      3. Hiri Sutta: A dissertation on the nature of true friendship.
      4. Mahāmaṅgala Sutta: Thirty-eight blessings are enumerated in leading a pure life, starting with basic ethical injunctions and culminating in the realisation of Nibbāna.
      5. Sūciloma Sutta: In reply to the threatening attitude of the yakkha Sūciloma, the Buddha states that passion, hatred, doubt, etc., originate with the body, desire and the concept of self.
      6. Dhammacariya Sutta: A Bhikkhu should lead a just and pure life and avoid those of a quarrelsome nature and those who are slaves of desire.
      7. Brāhmaṇadhammika Sutta: The Buddha explains to some old and wealthy brahmins the high moral standards of their ancestors and how they declined, following greed for the king’s wealth. As a result they induced the king to offer animal sacrifice, etc., in order to acquire wealth and thus lost knowledge of the Dhamma.
      8. Nava Sutta: Taking heed of the quality of the teacher, one should go to a learned and intelligent man in order to acquire a thorough knowledge of Dhamma.
      9. Kiṃsīla Sutta: The path of a conscientious lay disciple, Dhamma being one’s first and last concern.
      10. Uṭṭhāna Sutta: An attack on idleness and laziness. Pierced by the arrow of suffering, one should not rest until all desire is eliminated.
      11. Rāhula Sutta: The Buddha advises his son, the novice Rāhula, to respect the wise man, associate with him, and live up to the principles of a recluse.
      12. Vaṅgīsa Sutta: The Buddha assures Vaṅgīsa that his late teacher, Nigrodhakappa, attained Nibbāna.
      13. Sammāparibbājanīya Sutta: The path of a conscientious Bhikkhu disciple: Non-attachment, eradication of the passions, and understanding the nature of saṃsāra.
      14. Dhammika Sutta: The Buddha explains to Dhammika the respective duties of a Bhikkhu and layman, the latter being expected to keep the five precepts and observe uposatha days.
    3. Mahāvagga:

      1. Pabbajjā Sutta: King Bimbisāra of Magadha tempts the Buddha with his material resources and asks after his lineage. The Buddha states the fact of his birth amongst the Sakyans of Kosala and that he has seen through the illusive nature of sensual pleasures.
      2. Padhāna Sutta: The graphic description of Māra’s temptations immediately prior to the Buddha’s Enlightenment.
      3. Subhāsita Sutta: The language of Bhikkhus should be well-spoken, pleasing, correct, and true.
      4. Sundarikabhāradvāja Sutta: The Buddha explains to the brahmin Sundarika, how one becomes worthy of the honour of receiving an offering.
      5. Māgha Sutta: The Buddha explains the above to the layman Māgha, and elucidates the various kinds of blessings from offerings.
      6. Sabhiya Sutta: Sabhiya, a wandering ascetic, could not obtain answers to his questions from the six famous teachers of the time. Hence he approaches the Buddha and becomes a disciple after obtaining satisfactory answers to his questions.
      7. Sela Sutta: A brahmin, Sela, converses with the Buddha and is converted with his three hundred followers.
      8. Salla Sutta: Life is short and all are subject to death, but the wise, who understand the nature of life, have no fears.
      9. Vāseṭṭha Sutta: Two young men, Bhāradvāja and Vāseṭṭha, discuss a question regarding brahmins: The former states that one is a brahmin by birth, the latter that one becomes one only through actions. The Buddha subsequently confirms the latter view as being correct.
      10. Kokāliya Sutta: Kokāliya falsely ascribes evil desires to Sāriputta and Moggallāna and subsequently comes to a painful end, through death and rebirth in one of the hells. The Buddha then enumerates the different hells and describes the punishment for slandering and back-biting.
      11. Nālaka Sutta: The sage Asita’s prophecy concerning the future Buddha Gotama. His sister’s son, Nālaka, has the highest state of wisdom explained to him by the Buddha.
      12. Dvayatānupassana Sutta: Suffering arises from substance, ignorance, the five aggregates, desire, attachment, effort, food, etc.
    4. Aṭṭhakavagga:

      1. Kāma Sutta: To avoid the unpleasant effects, sensual pleasures should be avoided.
      2. Gūhaṭṭhaka Sutta: In addition to the above, physical existence also should not be clung to if one is keen on attaining deliverance from saṃsāra.
      3. Duṭṭhaṭṭhaka Sutta: One who praises his own virtue and is tied to dogmatic views (that differ from man to man and sect to sect) lives a restricted life. The sage, however, remains self-effacing and independent of philosophical systems.
      4. Suddhaṭṭhaka Sutta: Knowledge of philosophical systems cannot purify one and there is the tendency to chop and change, never attaining inward peace. The wise, however, are not misled by passion and do not cling to anything in saṃsāra.
      5. Paramaṭṭhaka Sutta: One should not engage in philosophical disputations. A true brahmin does not and thereby attains Nibbāna.
      6. Jara Sutta: From selfishness come greed and regrets. The ideal Bhikkhu, a “homeless one,” is independent and does not seek purification through others.
      7. Tissa Metteyya Sutta: The Buddha elucidates the kinds of undesirable effects that follow from sensual contacts.
      8. Pasura Sutta: The folly of debates where both sides insult or deride each other. If defeated they become discontented. Therefore purification cannot result.
      9. Māgandiya Sutta: Again, the Buddha emphasises to Māgandiya, a believer in purity through philosophy that purity can result only from inward peace.
      10. Purābheda Sutta: The conduct and characteristics of a true sage: Freedom from craving, anger, desire, passion, and attachment; and he is always calm, thoughtful, and mentally equipoised.
      11. Kalahavivāda Sutta: Arguments and disputes arise from deeply felt objects, etc.
      12. Cūḷaviyūha Sutta: A description of the different schools of philosophy, all contradicting one another without realising that Truth is one.
      13. Mahāviyūha Sutta: Philosophers only praise themselves and criticise others but a true brahmin remains indifferent to such dubious intellectual attainment and is thus calm and peaceful.
      14. Tuvaṭaka Sutta: The Bhikkhu should sever the root of evil and cravings, learn the Dhamma, be calm and meditative, avoid talking, indolence, etc., and strictly follow his prescribed duties.
      15. Attadaṇḍa Sutta: The sage should be truthful, undeceitful, sober, free from greed and slander, energetic, and without desire for name and fame.
      16. Sāriputta Sutta: Again, this time in answer to Sāriputta’s enquiry, the Buddha lays down the principles that should govern the life of a Bhikkhu.
    5. Pārāyanavagga: This section consists of sixteen dialogues (puccha) between the Buddha and sixteen brahmins. They all stress the necessity of eradicating desire, greed, attachment, philosophical views, sensual pleasures, indolence, and of remaining aloof, independent, calm, mindful, and firm in the Dhamma in order to attain Nibbāna:

      Tissa Metteyya.

  6. Vimānavatthu: The “Stories of Celestial Mansions,” being 85 poems in seven vaggas on merit and rebirth in the heavenly worlds.
  7. Petavatthu: This comprises 51 poems in four vaggas on rebirth as wandering ghosts (petas) through demeritorious actions.
  8. Theragātha: “Verses of the Elders” (theras), containing 107 poems (1,279 gāthas).
  9. Therīgāthā: “Verses of the Elder Nuns” (therīs), containing 75 poems (522 gāthas).
  10. Jātaka: The Jātaka or Birth Stories is a collection of 547 stories purporting to be accounts of former lives of the Buddha Gotama. The Nidānakathā, or “Story of the Lineage,” is an introductory commentary which details the life of the Buddha up to the opening of the Jetavana monastery at Sāvatthī, and also his former lives under preceding Buddhas.
  11. Niddesa:

    1. Mahāniddesa: A commentary on the Aṭṭhakavagga of the Suttanipāta; and
    2. Cūḷaniddesa: A commentary on the Pārāyanavagga and the Khaggavisāṇa Sutta, also of the Suttanipāta.

    The Niddesa is itself commented on in the Saddhammapajjotikā of Upasena and is there attributed to Sāriputta.

  12. Paṭisambhidāmagga: A detailed analysis of concepts and practices already mentioned in the Vinaya Piṭaka and Dīgha, Saṃyutta and Aṅguttara Nikāyas. It is divided into three vaggas, each containing ten topics (katha):

    1. Mahā Vagga: Knowledge of impermanence and dukkha of compounded things, the Four Noble Truths, dependent origination, four planes of existence, false views, the five faculties, three aspects of Nibbāna, kamma-vipāka, the four paths to Nibbāna.
    2. Yuganaddha Vagga: The seven factors of enlightenment, four foundations of mindfulness, four right efforts; four powers (will, energy, thought, investigation), the Noble Eightfold Path, four fruits of the monk’s life (patticariyā) and Nibbāna; 68 potentialities.
    3. Paññā Vagga: Eight kinds of conduct (cariya); postures (walking, sitting, standing, lying down), sense organs, mindfulness; concentration (the jhānas), the Four Noble Truths, the four paths to Nibbāna, the four fruits of a monk’s life, and for the promotion of the world’s welfare.
  13. Apadāna: Tales in verse of the former lives of 550 Bhikkhus and 40 Bhikkhunīs.
  14. Buddhavamsa: “The History of the Buddhas,” in which the Buddha relates the account of his forming the resolve to become a Buddha and gives the history of the twenty-four Buddhas who preceded him.
  15. Cariyāpiṭaka: Thirty-five tales from the Jātakas in verse illustrating seven out of the Ten Perfections (pāramīs): generosity, morality, renunciation, wisdom, energy, patience, truthfulness, determination, loving-kindness, and equanimity.

C. Abhidhamma Piṭaka—
the Collection of PhilosopHical Treatises

The Abhidhamma Piṭaka is the third main division of the Pali Canon. It consists of seven works which are systematic expositions of the doctrine from a strict philosophical point of view. They deal especially with the psychological analysis of phenomenal existence.

  1. Dhammasaṅgaṇī: Enumeration of the dhammas or factors of existence. The work opens with a mātikā, a “matrix” or schedule of categories which classifies the totality of phenomena into a scheme of twenty-two triads (tika), sets of three terms, and a hundred dyads (duka), sets of two terms. The mātikā also includes a Suttanta matrix, a schedule of forty-two dyads taken from the suttas. The mātikā serves as a framework for the entire Abhidhamma, introducing the diverse perspectives from which all phenomena are to be classified. The body of the Dhammasaṅgaṇī consists of four parts:

    1. “States of Consciousness,” which analyses all states of consciousness into their constituent factors, each of which is elaborately defined.
    2. “Matter,” which enumerates and classifies the various types of material phenomena.
    3. “The Summary,” offering concise explanations of all the terms in both the Abhidhamma and Suttanta matrixes.
    4. “The Synopsis,” offering more condensed explanations of the Abhidhamma matrix but not the Suttanta matrix.
  2. Vibhaṅga: “Distinction or Determination.” Continued analysis of the foregoing. The Vibhaṅga contains eighteen chapters, dealing in turn with the following: Aggregates, sense bases, elements, truths, faculties, dependent arising, foundations of mindfulness, supreme efforts, means to accomplishment, factors of enlightenment, the eightfold path, jhānas, illimitables (or Brahma-vihāras), training rules, analytical knowledges, kinds of knowledge, defilements, and “the heart of the doctrine” (a concise overview of the Buddhist universe).
  3. Dhātukathā: “Discussion of Elements.” This book discusses all phenomena with reference to the three schemes of aggregates, sense bases and elements. It attempts to determine whether, and to what extent, they are included or not included in them, and whether they are associated with them or dissociated from them.
  4. Puggalapaññatti: The body of this work provides formal definitions of different types of individuals. It has ten chapters: The first deals with single types of individuals, the second with pairs, the third with groups of three, etc.
  5. Kathāvatthu: Discussion of the points of controversy between the early “Hīnayāna” sects, and the defence of the Theravada viewpoint. Attributed to Moggaliputta Tissa, the president of the 3rd council, which was convened at Patna by the Emperor Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century BCE.
  6. Yamaka: This book has the purpose of resolving ambiguities and defining the precise usage of technical terms. It is called the “Book of Pairs” because it employs throughout pairs of questions which approach the subject under investigation from converse points of view. For example, the first pair of questions runs thus: “Are all wholesome phenomena wholesome roots? And are all wholesome roots wholesome phenomena?” The book contains ten chapters: Roots, aggregates, sense bases, elements, truths, formations, latent dispositions, consciousness, phenomena, and faculties.
  7. Paṭṭhāna: The “Book of Relations.” Causation and the mutual relationship of phenomena are examined. The special contribution of the Paṭṭhāna is the elaboration of a scheme of twenty-four conditional relations (paccaya) for plotting the causal connections between different types of phenomena. The body of the work applies these conditional relations to all the phenomena included in the Abhidhamma matrix. The book has four great divisions: Origination according to the positive method, origination according to the negative method, origination according to the positive-negative method, and origination according to the negative-positive method. Each of these in turn has six subdivisions: Origination of triads, dyads, dyads and triads combined, triads and dyads combined, triads and triads combined, and dyads and dyads combined. In the Burmese-script Sixth Council edition of the Pali Canon, the Paṭṭhāna comprises five volumes totalling 2500 pages. Because of its great size as well as its philosophical importance, it is also known as the Mahāpakaraṇa, “the Great Treatise.”

II. Index to the Canon

This Index lists the principal sections and suttas of the Pali Canon. The following are the abbreviations used:

AN Aṅguttara Nikāya
AP Abhidhamma Piṭaka
DN Dīgha Nikāya
Dhp Dhammapada
It Itivuttaka
KN Khuddaka Nikāya
Kha Khandhaka
Khp Khuddakapāṭha
MN Majjhima Nikāya
Nidd Niddesa
Paṭis Paṭisambhidāmagga
SN Saṃyutta Nikāya
Sn Suttanipāta
SP Sutta Piṭaka
SV Suttavibhaṅga
Ud Udāna

Vinaya Piṭaka

In the following table, the number in the fourth column refers to the unit of analysis mentioned in the first column. Thus Khandha Saṃyutta SP S 22 refers to the Sutta Piṭaka, Saṃyutta Nikāya, Saṃyutta No. 22, while Khandha Vagga SP S 3 refers to the Sutta Piṭaka, Saṃyutta Nikāya, Vagga No. 3. When the number in the fourth column contains two parts separated by a colon, the first figure refers to the larger unit (vagga or saṃyutta), the second figure to the sutta within that unit.

Abhayarājakumāra Sutta SP MN 58
Abhidhamma Piṭaka 3rd of the 3 Piṭakas    
Abhisamaya Saṃyutta SP SN 13
Acchariya-abbhūtadhamma Sutta SP MN 123
Adhikaraṇasamatha VP SV group of rules
Aggañña Sutta SP DN 27
Aggi(ka) Bhāradvāja Sutta SP KN Sn 7
Aggivacchagotta Sutta SP MN 72
Ajitamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 55
Ākaṅkheyya Sutta SP MN 6
Alagaddūpama Sutta SP MN 22
Āḷavaka Sutta SP KN Sn 10
Āmagandha Sutta SP KN Sn 14
Ambalaṭṭhikarāhulovāda Sutta SP MN 61
Ambaṭṭha Sutta SP DN 3
Anupada Vagga SP MN  
Anamatagga Saṃyutta SP SN 15
Ānandabhaddekaratta Sutta SP MN 132
Anaṅgaṇa Sutta SP MN 5
Āneñjasappāya Sutta SP MN 106
Ānāpāna Saṃyutta SP SN 54
Ānāpānasati Sutta SP MN 118
Anāthapiṇḍikovāda Sutta SP MN 143
Anattalakkhaṇa Sutta SP SN 22:59
Aṅgulimāla Sutta SP MN 86
Aṅguttara Nikāya SP 4th Nikāya  
Anumāna Sutta SP MN 15
Anupada Sutta SP MN 111
Anupada Vagga SP MN 12
Anuruddha Saṃyutta SP SN 52
Anuruddha Sutta SP MN 127
Apadāna SP KN  
Apaṇṇaka Sutta SP MN 60
Appamāda Vagga SP KN Dhp 2
Arahanta Vagga SP KN Dhp 7
Araṇavibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 139
Ariyapariyesana Sutta SP MN 26
Asaṅkhata Saṃyutta SP SN 43
Assalāyana Sutta SP MN 93
Āṭānāṭiya Sutta SP DN 32
Atta Vagga SP KN Dhp 12
Attadaṇḍa Sutta SP KN Sn 53
Aṭṭhakanāgara Sutta SP MN 52
Aṭṭhaka Nipāta SP AN 8
Aṭṭhakavagga SP KN Sn
Avyākata Saṃyutta SP SN 44
Bāhitika Sutta SP MN 88
Bahudhātuka Sutta SP MN 115
Bahuvedanīya Sutta SP MN 59
Bakkula Sutta SP MN 124
Bala Saṃyutta SP SN 50
Bala Vagga SP KN Dhp 5
Bālapaṇḍita Sutta SP MN 129
Bhaddāli Sutta SP MN 65
Bhaddekaratta Sutta SP MN 131
Bhadrāvudhamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 66
Bhayabherava Sutta SP MN 4
Bhikkhu Saṃyutta SP SN 21
Bhikkhu Suttavibhaṅga VP SV 1
Bhikkhu Vagga SP MN  
Bhikkhu Vagga SP KN Dhp 25
Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta SP SN 5
Bhikkhunī Suttavibhaṅga VP SV 2
Bhūmija Sutta SP MN 126
Bodhi Vagga SP KN Ud
Bodhirājakumāra Sutta SP MN 85
Bojjhaṅga Saṃyutta SP SN 46
Brahma Saṃyutta SP SN 6
Brahmajāla Sutta SP DN 1
Brāhmaṇa Vagga SP MN  
Brāhmaṇa Saṃyutta SP SN 7
Brāhmaṇa Vagga SP KN Dhp 26
Brāhmaṇadhammika Sutta SP KN Sn 19
Brahmanimantanika Sutta SP MN 49
Brahmāyu Sutta SP MN 91
Buddha Vagga SP KN Dhp14
Buddhavamsa SP KN  
Cakkavattisīhanāda Sutta SP DN 26
Caṅkī Sutta SP MN 95
Cariyāpiṭaka SP KN  
Catukka Nipāta SP AN 4
Catukka Nipāta SP KN It
Cātuma Sutta SP MN
Cetokhila Sutta SP MN 16
Chabbisodhana Sutta SP MN 112
Chachakka Sutta SP MN 148
Chakka Nipāta SP AN 6
Channovāda Sutta SP MN 144
Citta Saṃyutta SP SN 41
Citta Vagga SP KN Dhp 3
Cūḷa-assapura Sutta SP MN 40
Cūḷadhammasamādāna Sutta SP MN 45
Cūḷadukkhakkhandha Sutta SP MN 14
Cūḷagopālaka Sutta SP MN 34
Cūḷagosiṅga Sutta SP MN 31
Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta SP MN 27
Cūḷakammavibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 135
Cūḷamāluṅkya Sutta SP MN 63
Cūḷaniddesa SP KN Nidd
Cūḷapuṇṇama Sutta SP MN 110
Cūḷarāhulovāda Sutta SP MN 147
Cūḷasaccaka Sutta SP MN 35
Cūḷasakuludāyi Sutta SP MN 79
Cūḷasāropama Sutta SP MN 30
Cūḷasīhanāda Sutta SP MN 11
Cūḷasuññata Sutta SP MN 121
Cūḷataṇhāsaṅkhaya Sutta SP MN 37
Cūḷavagga VP Kha 2
Cūḷavagga SP KN Ud
Cūḷavagga SP KN Sn
Cūḷavedalla Sutta SP MN 44
Cūḷaviyūha Sutta SP KN Sn 50
Cālayamāna Vagga SP MN  
Cunda Sutta SP KN Sn 5
Dakkhiṇavibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 142
Daṇḍa Vagga SP KN Dhp 10
Dantabhūmi Sutta SP MN 125
Dasaka Nipāta SP AN 10
Dasasikkhāpadā SP KN Khp
Dasuttara Sutta SP DN 34
Devadaha Sutta SP MN 101
Devadaha Vagga SP MN  
Devadūta Sutta SP MN 130
Devaputta Saṃyutta SP SN 2
Devata Saṃyutta SP SN 1
Dhamma Sutta [1] SP KN Sn 18
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta SP SN 56:11
Dhammacariya Sutta SP KN Sn 18
Dhammacetiya Sutta SP MN 89
Dhammadāyāda Sutta SP MN 3
Dhammapada SP KN  
Dhammasaṅgaṇi AP 1st book of AP  
Dhammaṭṭha Vagga SP KN Dhp 19
Dhammika Sutta SP KN Sn 26
Dhanañjāni Sutta SP MN 97
Dhaniya Sutta SP KN Sn 2
Dhātukathā AP 3rd book of AP  
Dhātu Saṃyutta SP SN 14
Dhātuvibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 140
Dhotakamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 59
Dīgha Nikāya SP 1st Nikāya  
Dīghanakha Sutta SP MN 74
Diṭṭhi Saṃyutta SP SN 24
Duka Nipāta SP AN 2
Duka Nipāta SP KN It
Duṭṭhaṭṭhaka Sutta SP KN Sn 41
Dvattiṃsakāra SP KN Khp
Dvayatānupassana Sutta SP KN Sn 38
Dvedhavitakka Sutta SP MN 19
Ekaka Nipāta SP AN 1
Ekaka Nipāta SP KN It
Ekadasaka Nipāta SP AN 11
Esukāri Sutta SP MN 96
Gahapati Vagga SP MN  
Gāmaṇi Saṃyutta SP SN 42
Gaṇakamoggallāna Sutta SP MN 107
Gandhabbakāya Saṃyutta SP SN 31
Ghaṭīkāra Sutta SP MN 81
Ghoṭamukha Sutta SP MN 94
Gopakamoggalāna Sutta SP MN 108
Gūhaṭṭhaka Sutta SP KN Sn 40
Gulissāni Sutta SP MN 69
Hemakamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 62
Hemavata Sutta SP KN Sn 9
Hiri Sutta SP KN Sn 15
Iddhipāda Saṃyutta SP SN 51
Indriya Saṃyutta SP SN 48
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta SP MN 152
Isigili Sutta SP MN 116
Itivuttaka SP KN  
Jaccandha Vagga SP KN Ud
Jāliya Sutta SP DN 7
Jambukhādaka Saṃyutta SP SN 38
Janāvāsabha Sutta SP DN 18
Jara Sutta SP KN Sn 44
Jara Vagga SP KN Dhp 11
Jātaka SP KN  
Jatukaṇṇimāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 65
Jhāna Saṃyutta SP SN 53
Jīvaka Sutta SP MN 55
Kakacūpama Sutta SP MN 21
Kalahavivāda Sutta SP KN Sn 49
Kāma Sutta SP KN Sn 39
Kandaraka Sutta SP MN 51
Kaṇṇakatthala Sutta SP MN 90
Kapila Sutta SP KN Sn 18
Kappamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 64
Kasībhāradvāja Sutta SP KN Sn 4
Kassapa Saṃyutta SP SN 16
Kassapasīhanāda Sutta SP DN 8
Kathāvatthu AP 5th book of AP  
Kāyagatāsati Sutta SP MN 119
Kāyavicchandanika Sutta [2] SP KN Sn 11
Kevaḍḍha Sutta SP DN 11
Khaggavisāṇa Sutta SP KN Sn 3
Khandha Saṃyutta SP SN 22
Khandha Vagga SP SN  
Khandhaka VP    
Khuddaka Nikāya SP 5th Nikāya  
Khuddakapāṭha SP KN  
Kilesa Saṃyutta SP SN 6
Kiṃsīla Sutta SP KN Sn 21
Kinti Sutta SP MN 103
Kīṭāgiri Sutta SP MN 70
Kodha Vagga SP KN Dhp 17
Kokāliya Sutta SP KN Sn 36
Kosala Saṃyutta SP SN 3
Kosambiya Sutta SP MN 48
Kukkuravatika Sutta SP MN 57
Kumārapañhā SP KN Khp
Kūṭadanta Sutta SP DN 5
Lābhasakkāra Saṃyutta SP SN 17
Lakkhaṇa Saṃyutta SP SN 19
Lakkhaṇa Sutta SP DN 30
Laṭukikopama Sutta SP MN 66
Lohicca Sutta SP DN 12
Loka Vagga SP KN Dhp13
Lomasakaṅgiyabhaddekaratta Sutta SP MN 134
Madhupiṇḍika Sutta SP MN 18
Madhura Sutta SP MN 84
Māgandiya Sutta SP MN 75
Māgandiya Sutta SP KN Sn 47
Magga Saṃyutta SP SN 45
Magga Vagga SP KN Dhp 20
Māgha Sutta SP KN Sn 31
Mahā-assapura Sutta SP MN 39
Mahācattārīsaka Sutta SP MN 117
Mahādhammasamādāna Sutta SP MN 46
Mahādukkhakkhandha Sutta SP MN 13
Mahāgopālaka Sutta SP MN 33
Mahāgosiṅga Sutta SP MN 32
Mahāgovinda Sutta SP DN 19
Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta SP MN 28
Mahākaccānabhaddekaratta Sutta SP MN 133
Mahākammavibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 136
Mahāli Sutta SP DN 6
Mahāmāluṅkya Sutta SP MN 64
Mahāmaṅgala Sutta SP KN Khp
Mahānidāna Sutta SP DN 15
Mahāniddesa SP KN Nidd
Mahāpadāna Sutta SP DN 14
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta SP DN 16
Mahāpuṇṇama Sutta SP MN 109
Mahārāhulovāda Sutta SP MN 62
Mahāsaccaka Sutta SP MN 36
Mahāsakuludāyi Sutta SP MN 77
Mahāsaḷāyatanika Sutta SP MN 149
Mahāsamāya Sutta SP DN 20
Mahāsamāya Sutta [3] SP KN Sn 25
Mahāsāropama Sutta SP MN 29
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta SP DN 22
Mahāsīhanāda Sutta SP MN 12
Mahāsudassana Sutta SP DN 17
Mahāsuññata Sutta SP MN 122
Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhaya Sutta SP MN 38
Mahāvacchagotta Sutta SP MN 73
Mahāvagga VP Kha  
Mahāvagga SP DN  
Mahāvagga SP SN  
Mahāvagga SP KN Sn
Mahāvagga SP KN Paṭis
Mahāvedalla Sutta SP MN 43
Mahāviyūha Sutta SP KN Sn 51
Mahāyamaka Vagga SP MN  
Majjhima Nikāya SP 2nd Nikāya  
Makhādeva Sutta SP MN 83
Mala Vagga SP KN Dhp 18
Maṅgala Sutta [4] SP KN Khp
Maṅgala Sutta [5] SP KN Sn 16
Māra Saṃyutta SP SN 4
Māratajjanīya Sutta SP MN 50
Mātugāma Saṃyutta SP SN 37
Meghiya Vagga SP KN Ud
Metta Sutta SP KN Khp
Metta Sutta SP KN Sn 8
Mettagūmāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 58
Moggallāna Saṃyutta SP SN 40
Mogharājamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 69
Moneyya Sutta [6] SP KN Sn 37
Mucalinda Vagga SP KN Ud
Mūlapariyāya Sutta SP MN 1
Mūlapariyāya Vagga SP MN  
Muni Sutta SP KN Sn 12
Nagaravindeyya Sutta SP MN 150
Nāga Saṃyutta SP SN 29
Nāga Vagga SP KN Dhp 23
Nālaka Sutta SP KN Sn 37
Nālakapāna Sutta SP MN 68
Nanda Vagga SP KN Ud
Nandakovāda Sutta SP MN 146
Nandamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 61
Nava Sutta SP KN Sn 20
Navaka Nipāta SP AN 9
Nidāna Saṃyutta SP SN 12
Nidāna Vagga SP SN  
Niddesa SP KN  
Nidhikaṇḍa Sutta SP KN Khp
Nigrodhakappa Sutta [7] SP KN Sn 24
Niraya Vagga SP KN Dhp 22
Nissaggiya Pācittiya VP SV Group of Rules
Nivāpa Sutta SP MN 25
Okkantika Saṃyutta SP SN 25
Opamma Saṃyutta SP SN 20
Opamma Vagga SP MN 3
Pabbajjā Sutta SP KN Sn 27
Pācittiya VP SV Group of Rules
Padhāna Sutta SP KN Sn 28
Pakiṇṇaka Vagga SP KN Dhp 21
Pañcaka Nipāta SP AN 5
Pañcattaya Sutta SP MN 102
Paññā Vagga SP KN Paṭis
Paṇḍita Vagga SP KN Dhp 6
Pāpa Vagga SP KN Dhp 9
Pārājika VP SV Group of Rules
Paramaṭṭhaka Sutta SP KN Sn 43
Parābhava Sutta SP KN Sn 6
Pārāyanavagga SP KN Sn
Paribbājaka Vagga SP MN  
Parivāra VP    
Pāsādika Sutta SP DN 29
Pasūra Sutta SP KN Sn 46
Pāṭaligāma Vagga SP KN Ud
Pāṭidesanīya VP SV Group of Rules
Pāṭika Sutta SP DN 24
Pāṭika Vagga SP DN 3
Pāṭika Vagga SP M  
Paṭisambhidāmagga SP KN  
Paṭṭhāna AP 7th book of AP  
Pāyāsi Sutta SP DN 23
Petavatthu SP KN  
Piṇḍapātapārisuddhi Sutta SP MN 151
Piṅgiyamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 70
Piya Vagga SP KN Dhp 16
Piyajātika Sutta SP MN 87
Posālamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 68
Potaliya Sutta SP MN 54
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta SP DN 9
Puggalapaññatti AP 4th book of AP  
Puṇṇakamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 57
Puṇṇovāda Sutta SP MN 145
Puppha Vagga SP KN Dhp 4
Purābheda Sutta SP KN Sn 4:10
Pūraḷāsa Sutta [8] SP KN Sn 30
Rādha Saṃyutta SP SN 23
Rāhula Saṃyutta SP SN 18
Rāhula Sutta SP KN Sn 23
Raja Vagga SP MN  
Ratana Sutta SP KN Khp
Ratana Sutta SP KN Sn 13
Rathavinīta Sutta SP MN 24
Raṭṭhapāla Sutta SP MN 82
Sabbāsava Sutta SP MN 2
Sabhiya Sutta SP KN Sn 32
Sacca Saṃyutta SP SN 56
Saccavibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 141
Sagātha Vagga SP SN  
Sahassa Vagga SP KN Dhp 8
Sakkapañha Sutta SP DN 21
Sakka Saṃyutta SP SN 11
Saḷāyatana Saṃyutta SP SN 35
Saḷāyatana Vagga SP MN  
Saḷāyatana Vagga SP SN  
Saḷāyatana-vibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 137
Sāleyyaka Sutta SP MN 41
Salla Sutta SP KN Sn 34
Sallekha Sutta SP MN 8
Samādhi Saṃyutta SP SN 34
Samāgama Sutta SP MN 104
Samaṇamaṇḍika Sutta SP MN 78
Sāmaṇḍaka Saṃyutta SP SN 39
Sāmaññaphala Sutta SP DN 2
Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta SP MN 9
Sammāparibbājanīya Sutta SP KN Sn 25
Sammappadhāna Saṃyutta SP SN 49
Sampasādanīya Sutta SP DN 28
Saṃyutta Nikāya SP 3rd Nikāya  
Sandaka Sutta SP MN 76
Saṅgārava Sutta SP MN 100
Saṅghādisesa VP SV Group of Rules
Saṅgīti Sutta SP DN 33
Saṅkhārupapatti Sutta SP MN 120
Sappurisa Sutta SP MN 113
Saraṇattaya SP KN Khp 1
Sāriputta Saṃyutta SP SN 28
Sāriputta Sutta SP KN Sn 54
Sātāgira Sutta [9] SP KN Sn 9
Satipaṭṭhāna Saṃyutta SP SN 47
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta SP MN 10
Sattaka Nipāta SP AN 7
Sekha Sutta SP MN 53
Sekhiya VP SV Group of Rules
Sela Sutta SP MN 92
Sela Sutta SP KN Sn 33
Sevitabbāsevitabba Sutta SP MN 114
Sigālovāda Sutta SP DN 31
Sīhanāda Vagga SP MN  
Sīlakkhandha Vagga SP DN  
Soṇadaṇḍa Sutta SP DN 4
Soṇathera Vagga SP KN Ud
Sotāpatti Saṃyutta SP SN 55
Subha Sutta SP DN 10
Subha Sutta SP MN 99
Subhāsita Sutta SP KN Sn 29
Sūciloma Sutta SP KN Sn 17
Suddhaṭṭhaka Sutta SP KN Sn 42
Sukha Vagga SP KN Dhp 15
Sunakkhatta Sutta SP MN 105
Sundarikabhāradvāja Sutta SP KN Sn 30
Suññata Vagga SP MN  
Supaṇṇa Saṃyutta SP SN 30
Suttanipāta SP KN  
Sutta Piṭaka SP 2nd of the 3 Piṭakas  
Suttavibhaṅga VP    
Taṇhā Vagga SP KN Dhp 24
Tatiya Vagga SP M  
Tevijja Sutta SP DN 13
Tevijjāvacchagotta Sutta SP MN 71
Theragāthā SP KN  
Therapañha Sutta [10] SP KN Sn 54
Therīgāthā SP KN  
Tika Nipāta SP AN 3
Tika Nipāta SP KN It 3
Tirokuḍḍa Sutta SP KN Khp 7
Tissametteyya Sutta SP KN Sn 45
Tissametteyyamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 56
Todeyyamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 63
Tuvaṭaka Sutta SP KN Sn 52
Udāna SP KN  
Udayamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 67
Uddesavibhaṅga Sutta SP MN 138
Udumbarikasīhanāda Sutta SP DN 25
Upakkilesa Sutta SP MN 128
Upāli Sutta SP MN 56
Upasīvamāṇava Pucchā SP KN Sn 60
Uppāda Saṃyutta SP SN 26
Uraga Sutta SP KN Sn 1
Uraga Vagga SP KN Sn
Uṭṭhāna Sutta SP KN Sn 22
Vacchagotta Saṃyutta SP SN 33
Valāhaka Saṃyutta SP SN 32
Vammika Sutta SP MN 23
Vanapattha Sutta SP MN 17
Vana Saṃyutta SP SN 9
Vaṅgīsa Saṃyutta SP SN 8
Vaṅgīsa Sutta SP KN Sn 24
Vasala Sutta SP KN Sn 7
Vāseṭṭha Sutta SP MN 98
Vāseṭṭha Sutta SP KN Sn 35
Vatthūpama Sutta SP MN 7
Vedanā Saṃyutta SP SN 36
Vekhanassa Sutta SP MN 80
Verañjaka Sutta SP MN 42
Vibhaṅga AP 2nd book of AP  
Vibhaṅga Vagga SP MN  
Vijaya Sutta SP KN Sn 11
Vīmaṃsakā Sutta SP MN 47
Vimānavatthu SP KN  
Vinaya Piṭaka VP 1st of the 3 Piṭakas  
Vitakkasaṇṭhāna Sutta SP MN 20
Yakkha Saṃyutta SP SN 10
Yamaka AP 6th book of AP  
Yamaka Vagga SP KN Dhp 1
Yuganaddha Vagga SP KN Paṭis 2

III. Bibliography

1. Translated Texts

The Pali Text Society (founded in 1881) has published English translations of the Pali texts from 1909. To date (2006) only the Niddesa and Apadāna from the Khuddaka Nikāya and Yamaka from the Abhidhamma Piṭaka remain untranslated out of the entire Canon. Apart from their own series (PTS, and SBB—Sacred Books of the Buddhists), there are five others of note: Sacred Books of the East (SBE—reprinted from the 1960s by UNESCO via Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi); The Wheel and Bodhi Leaf series of the Buddhist Publication Society (BPS); The Mahā Bodhi Society in either India or Sri Lanka (MBS); the (now defunct) Bauddha Sahitya Sabha (Buddhist Literature Society—BSS); and the Buddhist Missionary Society (BMS) of Kuala Lumpur. In addition, a few individual texts have appeared from Sinhalese, Indian, Burmese, Thai, English, and American publishers.

(To avoid the tedium of indicating the years of reprints of those works that have run into several editions, only the years of the first and latest editions have been shown. In the case of BPS publications, however, because these are normally kept in print, only the year of initial publication is shown).

A. Vinaya Piṭaka

I.B. Horner (tr.), The Book of the Discipline, PTS:

  1. Suttavibhaṅga, 1938, 1992.
  2. Suttavibhaṅga, 1940, 1993.
  3. Suttavibhaṅga, 1942, 1993.
  4. Mahāvagga, 1951, 1993.
  5. Cullavagga, 1952, 199
  6. Parivāra, 1966, 1993.

T.W. Rhys Davids and H. Oldenberg (tr.), Vinaya Texts SBE:

  1. Pātimokkha Oxford, 1881, Delhi 1975.
  2. Mahāvagga, 1882, 1975.
  3. Cullavagga, 1885, 1975.

J.F. Dickson (tr.), “The Upasampadā Kammavācā, being the Buddhist Manual of the Form and Manner of Ordering Priests and Deacons,” JRAS N.S. VII, 1875, reprinted in Warren, Buddhism in Translations, Harvard 1896, and Piyadassi Ordination in Theravada Buddhism, BPS 1963.

“The Patimokkha, being the Buddhist Office of the Confession of Priests,” JRAS N.S. VIII, 1876, reprinted ibid.

Ñāṇamoli (ed. and tr.), The Pātimokkha, Bangkok 1966, 1969.

William Pruitt and K.R. Norman (ed. and tr.), The Pātimokkha, PTS 2001.

Mohan Wijayaratna “Bhikkhunī-Pātimokkha,” (Pali and translation), Appendix 2 in Buddhist Nuns: The Birth and Development of a Women's Monastic Order, Colombo 2001.

B. Sutta Piṭaka

Dīgha Nikāya

T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids (tr.), Dialogues of the Buddha SBB:

  1. Suttas 1–13, 1899, 1995.
  2. Suttas 14–23, 1910, 1995.
  3. Suttas 24–34, 1921, 1995.

Maurice Walshe (tr.), Thus Have I Heard: The Long Discourses of the Buddha, London 1987.

A.A.G. Bennett (tr. 1–16), Long Discourses of the Buddha, Bombay 1964.

P. Anatriello, The Long Discourses of the Buddha Bognor Regis 1986. Comprises a selection with narrative themes.

Bhikkhu Bodhi (tr.):

Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views: The Brahmajāla Sutta and its Commentarial Exegesis, BPS 1978, 2007.

The Discourse on the Fruits of Recluseship: The Sāmaññaphala Sutta and its Commentaries, BPS 1989.

The Great Discourse on Causation: The Mahānidāna Sutta and its Commentaries, BPS 1984.

Acharya Buddharakkhita:

The Buddha, the Arahats and the Gods, Bangalore 1989. Pali text and translation of Mahāsamāya Sutta (D 20).

Invisible Protection, Bangalore 1990. Pali text and tr. of Atanatiya Sutta (D 32).

Satipaṭṭhāna System of Meditations, Bangalore 1980. Pali text and tr. of Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (D 22).

Burma Piṭaka Association (tr.), Ten Suttas from Dīgha Nikāya (1, 2, 9, 15, 16, 22, 26, 28, 29, 31), Rangoon 1984, Sarnath 1987.

Trevor Ling, The Buddha’s Philosophy of Man London 1981. Revised versions of Rhys Davids’ translations of 2,4,5,9,12,16,22,26,27,31.

Mahāsi Sayādaw, Discourse on Sakkapañha Sutta, Rangoon 1980.

T.W. Rhys Davids (tr.):

Kūṭadanta Sutta, BPS 1968.

Tevijja Sutta, London 1891, BPS 1963.

Sigālovāda Sutta, Colombo 1972.

Two Dialogues from Dialogues of the Buddha, (15 and 22). New York 1972.

Sīlācāra (tr. 2), The Fruit of the Homeless Life, London 1917.

S. Sumaṅgala (tr.), Sangiti Sutta, MBS, Colombo 1904, reprinted in The Mahā Bodhi, 12–13, 2 parts, Calcutta 1905.

U Sīlānanda (tr. 22), Four Foundations of Mindfulness, Boston 1990.

Union Buddha Sasana Council (tr.):

Brahmajāla Sutta, Rangoon 1958.

Sāmaññaphala Sutta, Rangoon 1958.

Sister Vajira and Francis Story (tr. 16), Last Days of the Buddha, BPS 1964, rev. ed. 1988, 2007.

Sister Vajira (tr. 21), Sakka’s Quest, BPS 1959.

Steven Collins ”The Discourse on What is Primary (Aggañña-Sutta). An Annotated Translation.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 21.4, Dordrecht 1993, pp. 301–93.

Majjhima Nikāya

Lord Chalmers (tr.), Further Dialogues of the Buddha, SBB:

  1. Suttas 1–76, 1926, Delhi 1988.
  2. Suttas 77–152, 1927, Delhi 1988.

I.B. Horner (tr.), The Middle Length Sayings, PTS:

  1. Suttas 1–50, 1954, 1995.
  2. Suttas 51–100, 1957, 1994.
  3. Suttas 101–152, 1959, 1993.

Burma (Myanmar) Piṭaka Association (tr.), ‘’Twenty-Five Suttas from Mūlapaṇṇāsa,’’ (reprint) Delhi 1990:

  1. Twenty-Five Suttas from Majjhimapaṇṇāsa, reprint, Delhi 1991.
  2. Twenty-Five Suttas from Uparipaṇṇāsa, reprint, Delhi 1991.

David Evans (tr.), The Discourses of Gotama the Buddha, Middle Collection. London 1992.

Ñāṇamoli (tr. 90 suttas, ed. Khantipālo), A Treasury of the Buddha’s Discourses, 3 volumes, Bangkok 1980.

Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi (tr.), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Boston 1995, 2005.

Sīlācāra (tr.), The First Fifty Discourses, Breslau-London 1912, Munich 1924, Delhi 2005.

Bhikkhu Bodhi (tr.), The Discourse on the Root of Existence: The Mūlapariyāya Sutta and its Commentarial Exegesis, BPS 1980.

Acharya Buddharakkhita (tr. 2), Mind Overcoming its Cankers, Bangalore 1978.

K. Sri Dhammānanda (ed. and tr. 10), Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness, BMS 1982.

Jotiya Dhirasekera (tr. 22), Parable of the Snake, Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Research Studies Series 1, Colombo 1983.

I.B. Horner (tr. 26), The Noble Quest, BPS 1974—(tr. 107 and 125) Taming the Mind, BPS 1963.


(tr. 41,57,135,136) The Buddha’s Words on Kamma, BPS 1977.

(tr. 9 and commentary), The Discourse on Right View, BPS 1991.

(tr. 82), Raṭṭhapāla Sutta, BPS 1967.

(tr. 122), The Greater Discourse on Voidness, BPS 1965.

(tr. 139), The Exposition of Non-Conflict, BPS 1979.

Ñāṇananda (tr. 131) Ideal Solitude, BPS 1973.

Nārada and Mahinda (tr. 51,54) Kandaraka and Potaliya Suttas, BPS 1965, (tr. 60, 63, 56) Apaṇṇaka, Cūla Māluṅkya and Upāli Suttas, BPS 1966.

Nyanaponika (tr. 61, 62, 147), Advice to Rāhula, BPS 1961.

Thich Nhat Hanh:

(tr. 118), Breathe! You are Alive: Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing, Berkeley 1990.

(tr. 131), Our Appointment with Life, Berkeley 1990. Includes essay based on Bhaddekaratta Sutta.

(tr. 10), Transformation and Healing. Sutra on the Four Establishments of Mindfulness, Berkeley 1990. Includes essay and translations from Chinese Tripiṭaka versions of sutta as well.


(tr. 7, 8), The Simile of the Cloth and the Discourse on Effacement, BPS 1964.

(tr. 22), The Discourse on the Snake Simile, BPS 1962.

(tr. 28), The Greater Discourse on the Elephant footprint Simile, BPS 1966.

Nyanasatta (tr. 10), The Foundations of Mindfulness, BPS 1960.


(tr. 9 and commentary), Right Understanding, BSS 1946.

(tr. 10), Foundations of Mindfulness, Colombo 1956, Dehiwela 1962.

(tr. 10 and commentary), The Way of Mindfulness, Kandy 1941, Colombo 1949, BPS 1967.

(tr. 20), The Removal of Distracting Thoughts, BPS 1960.

(tr. 27), The Lesser Discourse on the Elephant-footprint Simile, BPS 1960.

(tr. 35), An Old Debate on Self, BPS 1962.

S. Sumaṅgala (tr.), Mūlapariyāya Sutta, MBS, Colombo 1908.

Saṃyutta Nikāya

The Book of the Kindred Sayings PTS, reprinted Delhi 2005:

  1. Saṃyuttas 1–11, tr. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, 1917, 1993.
  2. Saṃyuttas 12–21, tr.—and F.L. Woodward, 1922, 1990.
  3. Saṃyuttas 22–34, tr. F.L. Woodward, 1927, 1995.
  4. Saṃyuttas 35–44, 1927, 1993.
  5. Saṃyuttas 45–56, 1930, 1994.

Bhikkhu Bodhi (tr.), The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, 2 volumes, Boston 2000.

Burma (Myanmar) Piṭaka Association (tr.):

Nidāna Saṃyutta, Delhi 1993.

Khandha Saṃyutta, Delhi 1996

Bhikkhu Bodhi (tr.), Transcendental Dependent Arising BPS 1980. A translation and exposition of the Upanisa Sutta, from the Nidānasaṃyutta (12:23).

Buddharakkhita, Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth, (56:11) Bangalore 1990.

John D. Ireland (tr.), Saṃyutta Nikāya: An Anthology I, BPS 1967.

Mahāsi Sayādaw:

Discourse on Ariyavaṃsa Sutta (4:28) Rangoon 1980.

Bhara Sutta or Discourse on the Burden of Khandha, (22:22) ibid.

Discourse on the Wheel of Dhamma, (56:11) ibid.

N.K.G. Mendis (ed. and tr. 22:59), On the No-Self Characteristic, BPS 1979.

Ñāṇamoli (tr. 22:59, 35:28, 56:11), Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha, BPS 1960.

Ñāṇamoli (tr. 10:60), The Girimānanda Sutta: Ten Contemplations, BPS 1972.

Ñāṇananda (tr.), Saṃyutta Nikāya: An Anthology II, BPS 1972.

Nārada (tr.), The First Discourse of the Buddha, Colombo 1972.

Nyanaponika (tr. Vedanā-Saṃyutta), Contemplation of Feeling, BPS 1983.

Nyanasatta (tr. 35:197, 200—abridged), Two Buddhist Parables, BPS 1958.

Soma (ed. and tr.), Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, BPS 1960.

M.O’C. Walshe (tr.), Saṃyutta Nikāya: An Anthology III, BPS 1985.

Aṅguttara Nikāya

The Book of the Gradual Sayings, PTS, reprinted Delhi 2005:

  1. Nipātas 1–3, 1932, 1993.
  2. Nipāta 4, 1933, 1990.
  3. Nipātas 5–6., tr. E. M. Hare, 1934, 1995.
  4. Nipātas 7–9, 1935, 1993.
  5. Nipātas 10–11, tr. F. L. Woodward 1936, 1994.

E.R.J. Gooneratne (tr. 1-3), Aṅguttara Nikāya, Galle 1913.

E. Hardy (ed.), Aṅguttara-Nikāya V, PTS 1900, 1958). Appendix I. Analytical Table of the eleven Nipātas.

A.D. Jayasundera (tr. IV), The Book of the Numerical Sayings, Adyar 1925.

Susan Elbaum Jootla (tr. 9:20), The Scale of Good Deeds: The Message of the Velama Sutta, BPS 1990.

Khantipālo, Where’s that Sutta? A subject index to the Aṅguttara Nikāya. JPTS X, 1985.

Ñāṇananda, The Magic of the Mind, BPS 1974. An exposition of the Kalakarama Sutta (2:24).

Nyanaponika (tr.), Aṅguttara Nikāya: An Anthology II, BPS 1972.

Bhikkhu Bodhi (tr.), Numerical Discourses of the Buddha. An Anthology of Suttas from the Aṅguttara Nikāya, Walnut Creek, CA. 1999.

Soma (tr. 3:56), Kālāma Sutta: The Buddha’s Charter of Free Enquiry, BPS 1959, reprinted in Nyanaponika (ed.), The Road to Inner Freedom, BPS 1982.

Khuddaka Nikāya


N.K. Bhagwat (tr.), Bhadragaka Khuddaka-Patha or Short Buddhist Recitations, Bangkok 1953, Bombay 1931.

Acharya Buddharakkhita, Khuddaka Patha, Bangalore 1980.

Ñāṇamoli, Minor Readings, PTS 1960, 1991.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids, The Text of the Minor Sayings, SBB 1931, 1997.

Sangharakshita (v-ix), The Mahā Bodhi, Calcutta 1950, reprinted in The Enchanted Garden, FWBO, London 1978, 1980.

Pe Maung Tin (tr.), Rangoon 191

F.L. Woodward, Some Sayings of the Buddha London 1925, 1960, New York 1973.


Translated under the following titles if different from Dhammapada:

E.W. Adikaram (tr.), Colombo 1954.

Anon – comp. or tr. for The Cunningham Press, Alhambra (CA), 1955, reprinted by The Theosophical Society, Bombay 1957, 1965.

B. Ānanda Maitreya (tr.), serialized in Pali Buddhist Review 1 and 2, London 1976–77, and off printed as Law Verses, Colombo 1978, rev. ed., New York 1988.

J. Austin (comp.), The Buddhist Society, London 1945, 1978.

Irving Babbitt (tr.), New York 1936, 1965.

N.V. Banerjee (ed. and tr.), New Delhi 1989.

Anne Bancroft (comp.), Rockport (MA), Shaftesbury and Brisbane 1997.

Bhadragaka (comp.) Collection of Verses on the Doctrine of the Buddha, Bangkok 1952—printed 1965.

N.K. Bhagwat (tr.), Bombay 1931, Hong Kong 1968.

A.P. Buddhadatta (ed. and tr.), Colombo 1954, Bangkok 1971.

Acharya Buddharakkhita (tr.), MBS, Bangalore 1966, Buddhayoga Meditation Society, Fawnskin (CA) and Syarikat Dharma, Kuala Lumpur 1984, BPS 1985.

E.W. Burlingame (tr. incl. commentary), Buddhist Legends, 3 volumes, Harvard 1921, PTS 1979. Selected and rev. by Khantipālo for Buddhist Stories. 4 volumes, BPS 1982–88.

Thomas Byrom (comp.) London 1976.

John Ross Carter and Mahinda Palihawadana (ed. and tr.), New York and Oxford 1987, 1998; without the commentary, 2000.

Thomas Cleary (tr.), New York and London 1995.

J.P. Cooke and O.G.Pettis (tr.), Boston 1898.

U. Dhammajoti (tr.), MBS, Benares 1944.

Eknath Easwaran (tr.), Blue Mountain Center, Berkeley 1986, London 1987.

Albert J.Edmunds (tr.), Hymns of the Faith, La Salle (Illinois) 1902.

David Evans (tr.), The Dhamma Way, Leeds 1988.

Gil Fronsdal (tr.), Boston 2005.

D.J. Gogerly (tr. vaggas 1–18) in The Friend IV, Colombo 1840. Reprinted in Ceylon Friend, Colombo 1881 and in his collected works, Ceylon Buddhism II, London 1908.

James Gray (tr.), Rangoon 1881, Calcutta 1887.

K. Gunaratana (tr.), Penang 1937.

Norton T.W. Hazeldine (tr.), The Dhammapada, or the Path of Righteousness, Denver 1902.

Raghavan Iyer (ed. and tr.) Santa Barbara 1986.

U.D. Jayasekera (ed. and tr.) Dehiwala 1992.

David J. Kalupahāna (ed. and tr.), A Path of Righteousness, Lanham 1986.

Suzanne Karpeles (? tr.), serialized in Advent Pondicherry 1960–65 and reprinted in Questions and Answers, Collected Works of the Mother 3, Pondicherry 1977.

Harischandra Kaviratna (ed. and tr.), Wisdom of the Buddha, Theosophical University Press, Pasadena 1980.

Khantipālo (tr.), Growing the Bodhi Tree, Bangkok 1966—The Path of Truth, Bangkok 1977. Reprinted as Verses of the Buddha’s Teaching, Kaohsiung 1989.

C. Kunhan Raja (tr.), Adyar 1956, 1984.

P. Lal (tr.), New York 1967.

T. Latter (tr.), Moulmein 1850.

Wesley La Violette (free rendering and interpretation), Los Angeles 1956.

G.P. Malalasekera (tr. – unpublished by PTS), Colombo 1969.

Juan Mascaro (tr.), Harmondsworth 1973.

F. Max Muller (tr.), London 1870, SBE—Oxford 1881, New York 1887, Delhi 1980; included in E.A. Burtt The Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha, New York 1955, 1963.

C.H. Hamilton, Buddhism, a Religion of Infinite Compassion, New York 1952.

Charles F. Horne, The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East X, New York 1917, Delhi 1987.

Lin Yutang, The Wisdom of China and India, New York 1942 and The Wisdom of India, London 1944, Bombay 1966.

Mya Tin (tr.), Rangoon 1986, reprinted Delhi 1990.

Nārada (ed. and tr.) Kandy 1940, London 1954, 1972, Saigon 1963, Calcutta 1970, Colombo and New Delhi 1972, BMS 1978, Dehiwela 2000, and, with summary of commentary to each verse by K. Sri Dhammānanda, BMS 1988; tr. incl. in The Path of Buddhism, Colombo 1956.

K.R. Norman (tr.), The Word of the Doctrine, PTS 1997, 2000.

Piyadassi (tr.), Selections from the Dhammapada, Colombo 1974 Id. (tr. incl. Commentary) Stories of Buddhist India, 2 volumes, Moratuwa 1949, 1953.

Swami Premananda (tr.), The Path of the Eternal Law, Self-Realisation Fellowship, Washington (DC) 1942.

S. Radhakrishnan (ed. and tr.) Madras 1950, 1997, Delhi 1980; incl. in S. Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (ed.) A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton and Oxford 1957.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids (ed. and tr.), Verses on Dhamma, PTS 1931, 1997.

Sangharakshita (tr. vaggas 1–12) serialised in FWBO Newsletter, London 1969 ff. S.E.A. Scherb (tr.), The golden verses of the Buddha, a selection for the Christian Register, Boston 1861.

Mahesh Kumar Sharan (ed. and tr.) New Delhi 2006.

Sīlācāra (tr.), The Way of Truth, The Buddhist Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London 1915.

Sīlānanda (ed. and tr.), The Eternal Message of Lord Buddha, Calcutta 1982.

B. Siri Sivali (tr.), Colombo 1954, 1961.

W. Somalokatissa (tr.), Colombo 1953, 196

Roger Tite (comp. – unpublished), Southampton 1974.

P.L. Vaidya (tr.), Poona 1923, 1934.

W.D.C. Wagiswara and K.J. Saunders (tr.), The Buddha’s Way of Virtue, London 1912, 1927.

Sathienpong Wannapok (tr.), The Buddha’s Words, Bangkok 1979, 1988.

Ṭhānissaro (Geoffrey DeGraff, tr.) Barre (MA) 1998.

Glenn Wallis (tr.), ‘’Verses on the Way, New York 2004.

S.W. Wijayatilake (tr.), The Way of Truth, Madras 1934.

F.L. Woodward (tr.), The Buddha’s Path of Virtue, Adyar 1921, 1949.


Bhadragaka (tr.), 80 Inspiring Words of the Buddha, Bangkok 1954.

John D. Ireland (tr.), The Udāna: Inspired Utterances of the Buddha, BPS 1990.

Peter Masefield (tr.), The Udāna, PTS 1994.

D.M. Strong (tr.), The Solemn Utterances of the Buddha, London 1902.

F.L. Woodward (tr.), Verses of Uplift, SBB 1935, 1948.


John D. Ireland (tr.), The Itivuttaka: The Buddha’s Sayings, BPS 1991.

J.H. Moore (tr.), Sayings of the Buddha, New York 1908, The Hague 1965, New Delhi 1981.

Peter Masefield (tr.), The Itivuttaka, PTS 2000.

F.L. Woodward (tr.), As it was Said, SBB 1935, 1948.


G.F. Allen (tr. 4) Atthaka, Bambalapitiya 1958; reprinted in G.F. Allen, The Buddha’s Philosophy, London 1959.

Lord Chalmers (ed. and tr.), Buddha’s Teachings, Cambridge (MA) 1932.

Sir Muthu Coomaraswamy (tr. 1, 2, 3:7–9, 4:1), Dialogues and Discourses of Gotama Buddha, London 1874.

V. Fausböll (tr.), A Collection of Discourses, SBE, Oxford 1880, Delhi 1980.

E.M. Hare (tr.), Woven Cadences of Early Buddhists, SBB 1945, 1947.

John D. Ireland (tr. selection), The Discourse Collection, BPS 1965.

N.A. Jayawickrama, Suttanipāta Text and Translation, Post-Graduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya 2001.

Mom Chao Upalisan Jumbala (tr. 5), The Solasapanha, Bangkok 1956.

Mahāsi Sayādaw, A Discourse on Hemavata Sutta, Rangoon 1980.

K.R. Norman et al. (tr.), The Group of Discourses I, PTS 1984; reprinted as The Rhinoceros Horn and other Early Buddhist Poems, PTS 1985 Id. II (with notes) PTS 1995, 2001.

Nyanaponika (ed. and tr. 1:1), The Worn-Out Skin,. BPS 1977.

Piyasīlo (tr.), Book of Discourses I, Petaling Jaya 1989.

H. Saddhatissa (tr.), The Sutta-Nipāta, London 1985

Sister UK Vajira (and SL Dhammajoti) (tr.), Suttanipāta I. Uragavagga MBS, Sarnath 1941; II. Cūlavagga (ib. 1942).

Vimānavatthu and Petavatthu

I.B. Horner (tr.), Stories of the Mansions, SBB 1993.

Henry S. Gehman (tr.), Stories of the Departed, SBB 1942, 1993.

Jean Kennedy (tr.), Stories of the Mansions, SBB 1942.

B.C. Law (summaries):

The Buddhist Conception of Spirits, Calcutta 1923, Varaṇasi 1974, Delhi 1997.

Heaven and Hell in Buddhist Perspective, Ib. 1925, 1973.

P. Masefield (tr.), Vimana Stories, PTS 1990.


V.F. Gunaratana (tr. selection), The Message of the Saints, BPS 1969.

Edmund Jayasuriya, Thera-Therigatha. Inspired Utterances of Buddhist Monks and Nuns, based on the translations by C.A.F. Rhys Davids and K.R. Norman, Dehiwela 1999.

Khantipālo (tr. verses of Tālapuṭa Thera, with commentary), Forest Meditations, BPS 1977.

Susan Murcott, The First Buddhist Women, Berkeley 1991. Translation and commentary of Therīgāthā.

K.R. Norman (tr.), The Elders’ Verses, 2 volumes, PTS 1969/71, 1990/95:

  1. Poems of Early Buddhist Monks, 1997;
  2. Poems of Early Buddhist Nuns, 1997.

Damayanthi Ratwatte (tr.), Selected Translations of the Theri Gatha: Songs of Buddhist Nuns, Kandy 1983.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids (tr.):

  1. Psalms of the Brethren, PTS 1913, 1994.
  2. Psalms of the Sisters, PTS 1909; reprinted with Norman II as Poems of Early Buddhist Nuns, PTS 1997.

Both Rhys Davids volumes reprinted as Psalms of the Early Buddhists, PTS 1980 and Sacred Writings of the Buddhists, 3 volumes, New Delhi 1986.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids (tr. selection), Poems of Cloister and Jungle, London 1941.

Andrew Schelling and Anne Waldman (tr. selection), Songs of the Sons and Daughters of Buddha, Boston 1996.

Soma (tr. verses of Tālapuṭa Thera), His Last Performance, Kandy 1943.


E.B. Cowell (tr.), Jātaka Stories, 6 volumes, Cambridge 1895–1905; reprinted in 3 volumes, PTS 1972, 1981, Delhi 1990.

Ethel Beswick Jātaka Tales, London 1956. 35 tales based on Cowell’s tr.

W.B. Bollee (ed. and tr.), Kunala Jātaka, SBB 1970.

L.H. Elwell (tr.), Nine Jātakas, Boston 1886.

V. Fausböll (tr.):

Five Jātakas, Copenhagen and London 1861.

The Dasaratha-jātaka, being the Buddhist story of King Rāma, Ib.1871.

Ten Jātakas, Ib. 1872.

Two Jātakas, JRAS NS V, 1871.

H.T. Francis (tr.), ‘’The Vedabbha Jātaka, Cambridge 1884.

H.T. Francis and E.J. Thomas (tr.), Jātaka Tales, Cambridge 1916, Bombay 1970. Comprises 114 tales.

Richard Gombrich and Margaret Cone (tr. Vessantara Jātaka), The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara, Oxford 1977.

I.B. Horner (ed. and tr.), Ten Jātaka Stories, London 1957, Bangkok 1974. Designed to illustrate each of the Ten Perfections.

C.S. Josson, Stories of Buddha’s Births: A Jātaka Reader, New York 1976.

Rafe Martin, The Hungry Tigress: Buddhist Legends and Jātaka Tales, Berkeley 1990. A free retelling of selected Jātakas and other Buddhist stories.

R. Morris (tr.), Jātaka Tales from the Pali, Folklore Journal II-IV, London 1887.

Piyasīlo, Jātaka Stories, Petaling Jaya, Selangor 1983. A free adaptation of the last ten Jātakas.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids (tr.), Stories of the Buddha, London 1929, New York 1989. Comprises 47 tales.

T.W. Rhys Davids (tr.), Buddhist Birth Stories, London 1880; rev. ed. by C.A.F. Rhys Davids, 1925 and Leiden and Delhi 1973. Comprises the Nidāna-Kathā and the first 40 Jātakas.

Sarah Shaw (tr.), The Jātakas: Birth Stories of the Bodhisatta, Delhi 2006. Comprises 26 tales.

E. Wray, C. Rosenfield and D. Bailey, Ten Lives of the Buddha, Thai temple paintings and Jātaka tales. New York 1972.


Ñāṇamoli (tr.), The Path of Discrimination, PTS 1982, 1997.


Jonathan S. Walters (tr.), Gotamī’s Story, in Donald S. Lopez (ed.) Buddhism in Practice, Princeton 1995, pp. 113–38.


I.B. Horner (tr.), Chronicle of Buddhas, SBB 1975.

B.C. Law (tr.), The Lineage of the Buddhas, SBB 1938.

Meena Talin (tr.), The Genealogy of the Buddhas, Bombay 1969.


I.B. Homer (tr.), Basket of Conduct, SBB 1975.

B.C. Law (tr.), Collection of Ways of Conduct, SBB 1938.

C. Abhidhamma Piṭaka

Dhammasaṅgaṇī: tr. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, RAS, London 1900, Delhi 1975. PTS reprint 1974.

Vibhaṅga: tr. U Thittila, The Book of Analysis, PTS 1969,1988.

Dhātukathā: tr. U Nārada, Discourse on Elements, PTS 1962, 1977.

Puggalapaññatti: tr. B.C. Law, A Designation of Human Types, PTS 1922, 1979.

Kathāvatthu: tr. S.Z. Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Points of Controversy, PTS 1915, 1979.

Paṭṭhāna: tr. U Nārada, ‘’Conditional Relations, PTS I. 1969, II. 1981.

2. Anthologies

G.F. Allen, Buddha’s Words of Wisdom, London 1959, Dehiwela 2002. Sayings for each day of the year compiled from SP, mainly Sn.

Stephan Beyer (tr.), The Buddhist Experience: Sources and Interpretations, Belmont 1974.

Bhikkhu Bodhi (ed.), In the Buddha’s Words. An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon Boston 2005.

E.M. Bowden, The Imitation of Buddha, 3rd ed., London 1893, Delhi 1989. Quotations from mainly Pali texts for each day of the year.

E.H. Brewster, The Life of Gotama the Buddha, London 1926, Varaṇasi 1975. Compiled exclusively from the Pali Canon as tr. by the Rhys Davids.

Kerry Brown and Joanne O’Brien (eds.), The Essential Teachings of Buddhism, London 1989. Includes I. Theravada: 1. Thailand—daily readings from SP compiled by Ajahn Tiradhammo; 2. Sri Lanka—same, by W. G. Weeraratna and Dhanapala Samarasekara.

E.W. Burlingame (tr.), Buddhist Parables, New Haven 1922, Delhi 2004. Comprises over 200 allegories, anecdotes, fables and parables from VP, SP, A, Dhp Commentaries, and Milindapañhā.

E.A. Burtt (ed.), The Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha New York 1955, 1963. Includes selections from Mahāvagga and Thera-Therigāthā (Rhys Davids), Dhp (Max Muller), Sn (Chalmers), etc.

Paul Carus, The Gospel of Buddha, LaSalle (Illinois) 1894, London 1943, 1974, Tucson (Arizona) 1972, New Delhi 1981. Selection off printed as Sayings of Buddha, New York 1957.

Edward Conze:

(tr.) Buddhist Scriptures, Harmondsworth 1959, 1971.

(ed.) Buddhist Texts through the Ages, Oxford. 1954, New York 1964. Includes I.B. Horner (tr.), selection mainly from VP and SP.

The Way of Wisdom: The Five Faculties, BPS 1964. Illustrated from M, S, Milindapanha and Visuddhimagga.

A.K. Coomaraswamy and I.B. Horner (tr.), The Living Thoughts of Gotama the Buddha, London 1948, Bombay 1956, New Delhi 1982. Includes extracts from VP and SP (and Commentaries), Milindapanha and Visuddhimagga.

S. Dhammika (comp.):

Buddha Vacana, Daily Readings from Sacred Literature of Buddhism. Singapore 1989—(ed. and tr.).

Gemstones of the Good Dhamma BPS 1987. A short selection of verses from SP and Milindapanha, Pali and English on facing pages.

Sayings of the Buddha, Singapore 1993.

Sudhakar Dikshit, Sermons and Sayings of the Buddha, Bombay 1958, 1977. A selection from VP and SP.

David Evans:

The Buddha Digest: Modern Transcriptions of Pali Texts, Published privately, Leeds 2004.

The Five Nikāyas: Discourses of the Buddha I, Rangoon 1978. Offprints from The Light of the Dhamma, including the Patimokkha, numerous suttas, selection from Vibhaṅga.

Dwight Goddard (ed.), A Buddhist Bible, New York 1932, Boston 1970. Includes D 13, M 118, all of Nyanatiloka’s Word of the Buddha.

C.H. Hamilton, Buddhism, a Religion of Infinite Compassion, New York 1952. Includes selections from SP in standard early translations.

John J. Holder (tr.), Early Buddhist Discourses, Indianapolis 2006. Comprises new translations of D 9, 13, 15, 22, 26, 31, M 18, 22, 26, 38, 58, 63, 72, 93, Kālāma Sutta and extracts from S.

I.B. Horner (tr.), Early Buddhist Poetry, Colombo 1963 from SP.

Khantipālo, Buddha, My Refuge: Contemplation of the Buddha based on the Pali Suttas, BPS 1990. Texts on the Buddha from SP, arranged by way of the nine Buddha-virtues.

The Splendour of Enlightenment, 2 volumes, Bangkok 1976. A life of the Buddha extracted from Pali (PTS Translation Series and early Buddhist Sanskrit texts.

David Maurice (tr.), The Lion’s Roar, London 1962, New York 1967. Anthology mostly from SP, includes Pātimokkha.

Ñāṇamoli (tr.):

The Life of the Buddha, BPS 1972. Compiled from the VP and SP. Partial offprint as The Buddha’s Teaching in His Own Words, BPS 1998.

Mindfulness of Breathing, BPS 1964. Includes M 118 and related passages.

The Practice of Loving kindness, BPS 1959. Comprises the Karaṇīyamettā Sutta and short extracts from the texts on this subject.

Nārada (tr.), Everyman’s Ethics, BPS 1959. Comprises D 31, A 8:54, Sn 1:6, 2:4.

Nyanaponika (tr.), ‘’The Five Mental Hindrances, BSS 1947, BPS 1961. Selected passages from the Canon and Commentaries.

The Four Nutriments of Life, BPS 1967. A selection mainly from S and its Commentary.

The Roots of Good and Evil, BPS 1978. Extracts mainly from A.


(tr.), The Buddha’s Path to Deliverance, in its Threefold Division and Seven Stages of Purity, BSS 1952, BPS 1982. Compiled from SP.

Word of the Buddha, Rangoon 1907, 16th English ed., BPS 1980. The first really systematic exposition of the entire teachings of the Buddha presented in the Master’s own words as found in the Sutta Piṭaka … in the form of the Four Noble Truths.

Geoffrey Parrinder, The Wisdom of the Early Buddhists, London 1977. 108 extracts mainly from D (Rhys Davids) and M (Horner), The Sayings of the Buddha, London 1991\.

T.W. Rhys Davids (tr.), Buddhist Suttas, SBE 1881, New York 1969, Delhi 1980. Comprises D 13, 16, 17; M 2, 6, 16; S 56:11.

Stanley Rice, The Buddha Speaks Here and Now, Fundamental Buddhist Scriptures interpreted in Contemporary Idiom, BPS 1981. Reformulations of D 2, M 10, 20, 22, 43, 131; several other suttas from S, A, and Sn.

S. Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (ed.), A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, Princeton-Oxford 1957. Includes M 141 (Chalmers), Dhp (Radhakrishnan), extracts from the Udāna and Itivuttaka (Woodward), etc.

Lucien Stryk (ed.) World of the Buddha, New York 1968, 1982. Includes extracts from SP, Milindapanha and Visuddhimagga (Warren).

Susan Shaw, Buddhist Meditation, Richmond (Surrey) 2006.

Peter Skilling (ed.), Beyond Worldly Conditions, Bangkok 1999. Mss and commentaries on the Lokadhamma Sutta and related texts.

J. Subasinha, Buddhist Rules for the Laity, Madras 1908, Delhi 1997. Comprises D 31 and A 8:54.

J. Thomas (tr.), Early Buddhist Scriptures, London 1935, New York 1974, New Delhi 1996. Contains a wide selection from SP.

The Road to Nirvana, London 1950. Selected texts.

Vajirananavarorasa Dhammavibhaga: Numerical Sayings of Dhamma, 2 volumes, Bangkok 1968–70.

Henry Clarke Warren (tr.), Buddhism in Translations, Harvard 1896, New York 1972, Delhi 1987. Also reprinted as Buddhist Discourses, Delhi 1980. Comprises selections from VP and SP, Jātakas, Sumaṅgalavilasini, Milindapanha and Visuddhimagga.

The Life of the Buddha, Harvard 1923. Compiled from relevant sections of the above work. Revised edition, Everyman’s Life of the Buddha, Conesville 1968. A further selection appeared as The Wisdom of Buddha, New York 1968.

L. Woodward (tr.), Some Sayings of the Buddha, London 1925, 1974, New York 1973. Short passages from VP and SP. Reprinted as The Wisdom of Buddha, Delhi 2005.

3. Devotional Manuals
(Romanised Pali texts and translations)

Acharya Buddharakkhita, Buddhist Manual for Everyday Practice, Bangalore 1986.

K. Sri Dhammananda, Handbook of Buddhists, BMS 1965 – Daily Buddhist Devotions, BMS 1991, 1993

B. Dhammaratana:

Aura of the Dhamma, Singapore 1979.

Excerpts from the Book of Recitations, Mahāmakuta Educational Council, Bangkok 1957.

Khantipālo, Namo, Chanting Book. Wisemans Ferry, NSW (Australia) 1988.

Nārada and Kassapa, The Mirror of the Dhamma. Colombo, 1926, BPS 1963, Dehiwela 2005.

B. Pemaratana, Way to the Buddha, Penang 1964, 1970.

Piyadassi, The Book of Protection, BPS 1975. The first complete translation of the paritta book.

D.G. Ariyapala Perera, Buddhist Paritta Chanting Ritual, Dehiwela 2000.

Piyasīlo, The Puja Book: Paritta, Plainchant, and Rites of Passage, 4 volumes, Petaling Jaya 1990–92.

Rewata Dhamma, Mahā Paritta. The Great Protection, Birmingham Buddhist Vihara 1996.

H. Saddhatissa, Handbook of Buddhists, MBS, Sarnath 1956, 1973.

H. Saddhatissa and Russell Webb, A Buddhist’s Manual, MBS, London 1976.

H. Saddhatissa and Ven. Pesala, 2nd rev. ed., 1990.

Somboon Siddhinyano, Romanization of the Pali Chanting Book, Bangkok 1985, Wolverhampton Buddha Vihara 1987.

Pe Maung Tin, Buddhist Devotion and Meditation, SPCK, London 1964.

Sao Htun Hmat Win:

Eleven Holy Discourses of Protection, Mahā Paritta Pali, including the apocryphal Pubbanha Sutta, Rangoon 1981.

Basic Principles of Burmese Buddhism, Rangoon 1985.

K. Wimalajothi, Buddhist Chanting, Dehiwela 2003

4. Post-Canonical and Commentarial Literature

A. The Commentaries (in English translation)

Buddharakkhita, An Unforgettable Inheritance, (Commentary on Dhp I and II. 4 volumes. MBS, Bangalore 1973–89.

E.W. Burlingame, Buddhist Legends, (Buddhaghosa’s Dhammapadaṭṭhakathā). 3 volumes, Harvard 1921, PTS 1995, Delhi 2005.

P. Godahewa, Samanta-pāsādikā (Bāhira Nidāna Vannanā), (Introduction to the Samantapāsādika, Buddhaghosa’s commentary on Vinaya Piṭaka). Ambalangoda 1954.

I.B. Horner, Clarifier of the Sweet Meaning, (Madhuratthavilāsinī, Buddhadatta’s commentary on the Buddhavaṃsa), SBB 1978.

N.A. Jayawickrama:

The Inception of Discipline and the Vinaya Nidāna, (As for Godahewa), SBB 1962.

Story of Gotama Buddha (Nidānakathā of the Jātakaṭṭhakathā), PTS 1990.

Khantipālo, Buddhist Stories, (Selected and revised from Burlingame), 4 parts, BPS 1982–88.

U Ba Kyaw and P. Masefield, Peta-Stories, (Paramatthadīpanī, Dhammapāla’s commentary on the Petavatthu). SBB 1980.

B.C. Law, The Debates Commentary, (Buddhaghosa’s Kathāvatthuppakaraṇaṭṭhakathā, part of the Pañcappakaraṇaṭṭhakathā), PTS 1940, 1988.

Peter Masefield:

Elucidation of the Intrinsic Meaning so Named, (Dhammapāla’s commentary on the Vimānavatthu). SBB 1989,

Udāna Commentary, 2 volumes, PTS 1994–95.


Illustrator, (from Minor Readings and Illustrator) (Paramatthajotikā, Buddhaghosa’s commentary on the Khuddakapātha), PTS 1960, 1991.

The Dispeller of Delusion, (Sammohavinodanī, Buddhaghosa’s commentary on the Vibhaṅga), SBB I, 1987, II, 1991.

Nyanaponika (ed.), Stories of Old, BPS 1963. An anthology from the Commentaries.

Pe Maung Tin, The Expositor, (Atthasālinī, Buddhaghosa’s commentary on the Dhammasaṅgaṇī), 2 volumes, PTS 1920–21, 1976.

William Pruitt, The Commentary on the Verses of the Theris, PTS 1998.

Yang-Gyu An, The Buddha’s Last Days. Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta, PTS 2003.

B. Pali Exegeses (in English translation)


S.Z. Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Compendium of Philosophy, PTS 1910, 1995.

Egerton C. Baptist, Abhidhamma for the Beginner, Colombo 1959, Dehiwela 2004.

Bhikkhu Bodhi (ed. and tr.), A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, BPS 1993.

C.L.A. de Silva, A Treatise on Buddhist Philosophy or Abhidhamma, Colombo 1937, Delhi 1997.

Huyen-Vi, The Four Abhidhammic Reals, Linh-So’ n, Joinville-le-Pont (Paris) 1982.

Jagdish Kashyap, The Abhidhamma Philosophy I, Benares 1942, Patna 1954, Delhi 1982.

Nārada, A Manual of Abhidhamma, Colombo 1956, BPS 1968, Rangoon 1970; rev. ed. BPS 1975.

R.P. Wijeratne and Rupert Gethin (tr., and Abhidhammavibhāvini), Summary of the Topics and Exposition of the Topics of Abhidhamma, PTS 2002.


R. Basu, A Critical Study of the Milindapanha, Calcutta 1978.

I.B. Horner, Milinda’s Questions, 2 volumes, SBB 1963–64, 1990–91.

Minh Chau, Milindapañha and Nāgasenabhikshusūtra, Calcutta 1964. A comparative study.

Bhikkhu Pesala, The Debate of King Milinda, abridged, Delhi 1991.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids, The Milinda-Questions, London 1930, Delhi 1997; Richmond (Surrey) 2000. An inquiry into its place in the history of Buddhism with a theory as to its author.

T.W. Rhys Davids, The Questions of King Milinda, 2 volumes, SBE 1890–94, New York 1969, Delhi 2005.


Ñāṇamoli, The Guide, PTS 1962, 1977. Petakopadesa: Ñāṇamoli Piṭaka-Disclosure. PTS 1964, 1979.


B.N. Chaudhury, Abhidhamma Terminology in the Rūpārūpavibhāga, Calcutta 1983.

Robert Exell, The Classification of Forms and Formless Things, Visākha Puja, Bangkok 1964, JPTS XVII, 1992, pp. 1–12.


N.R.M. Ehara, Soma and Kheminda, The Path of Freedom, Colombo 1961, BPS 1977.


Jion Abe, Saṅkhepatthajotani Visuddhimaggacullaṭīkā sīla-Dhutaṅga: A study of the first and second chapters of the Visuddhimagga and its Commentaries, Poona 1981.

P.V. Bapat, Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga: A Comparative Study, Poona 1937.

Edward Conze, Buddhist Meditation, London 1956, 1972. Includes extensive passages from Vism.

U Dhammaratana, Guide through Visuddhimagga, MBS, Varaṇasi 1964, Colombo 1980.

Baidyanath Labh, Paññā in Early Buddhism, with special reference to Visuddhimagga, Delhi 1991.

Robert Mann and Rose Youd, Buddhist Character Analysis, (based on Vism). Bradford-on-Avon 1992.

Ñāṇamoli, The Path of Purification, Colombo 1956, BPS 1975, 2 volumes, Berkeley 1976.

Pe Maung Tin, The Path of Purity, PTS, 3 volumes, 1922–1931, 1 vol, 1975.

Vyañjana, Theravāda Buddhist Ethics with special reference to Visuddhimagga, Calcutta 1992.

C. Non-Indian Pali Literature

Burma (Myanmar from 1989)

Chester Bennett (tr. Malalankaravatthu), Life of Gaudama, Journal of the American Oriental Society III, New York 1853. Revised by Michael Edwardes as A Life of the Buddha, London 1959.

Paul Bigandet (tr. Tathāgata-udāna), The Life or Legend of Gaudama, 2 volumes, Rangoon 1858, London 1911–12

Mabel H. Bode, The Pali Literature of Burma, London 1909, 1966.

Asha Das, The Chronicle of Burma: The Cha-Kesadhātuvaṃsa, Delhi 1994.

Emil Forchhammer, Report on the Pali Literature of Burma, Calcutta 1879.

L. Allan Goss (tr. Vessantara Jātaka), The Story of Wethan-da-ya, Rangoon 1886.

James Gray (ed. and tr.), Buddhaghosuppatti or Historical Romance of the Rise and Career of Buddhaghosa, London 1892, 2001.

Ann Appleby Hazelwood (tr.), Pañcagatidīpanī, JPTS XI, 1987, pp. 133–59.

Mahāsi Sayādaw, The Progress of Insight, BPS 1965. A contemporary Pali treatise on satipatthāna meditation, with translation by Nyanaponika.

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

G.P. Malalasekera, The Pali Literature of Ceylon, London 1928, Colombo 1958.

Primoz Pecenko:

Sāriputta and his works, JPTS XXIII 1997, pp. 159–79.

Līnatthapakāsinī and Sāratthamañjūsā: The Purānatīkās and the Tīkās on the Four Nikāyas, JPTS XXVII, 2002, pp. 61–113.

Maung Tin (tr.), Abhisambodhi Alankāra: The Embellishments of Perfect Knowledge, Journal of the Burma Research Society I-III, Rangoon 1912–13.

H.C. Warren (partial tr.), Anāgatavaṃsa: The Buddhist Apocalypse, in Buddhism in Translations (op.cit.), describing disappearance of the Buddha’s Teaching.

H. Saddhatissa (ed. and tr.), Dasabodhisattuppattikathā: Birth Stories of the Ten Bodhisattas, SBB 1976.

William Pruitt (tr.), Anagatavamsa, The Chronicle of the Future Buddha in Sayagyi U Chit Tin, The Coming Buddha.

K.R. Norman (rev. tr.), Ariya Metteyya, BPS 1992, pp. 49–61, The Chronicle of the Future (Buddha) JPTS XXVIII 2006, pp. 19–32.

C. Duroiselle (tr.), Jinacarita: The Career of the Conqueror, London 1906, Delhi 1982.

tr. W.H.D. Rouse. JPTS 1904–5, reprinted Oxford 1978, New Delhi 1985.

James Gray (tr.) Jinālankāra: Embellishments of Buddha, London 1894, SBB 1981.

Widurupola Piyatissa (ed. and tr.), Kāmalañjali:With Folded Hands,’ Colombo 1952; reprinted in P. Sugatānanda, Sangīti, Rangoon 1954. A modern devotional poem.

R.F. Gombrich (ed. and tr.), Kosalabimbavaṇṇanā, in Heinz Bechert (ed.) Buddhism in Ceylon and Studies in Religious Syncretism in Buddhist Countries, Göttingen 1978.

H. Saddhatissa, Nāmarūpasamāso.

Khema, Nāmarūpasamāso, The Summary of Mind and Matter, JPTS XI, 1987, pp. 5–31.

D.J. Gogerly, Rasavāhinī, The Orientalist I, 1884, pp. 204–5. A detailed summary of the Rasavāhinī.

Junko Matsumura, Remarks on the Rasavāhinī and the Related Literature, JPTS XXV, 1999, pp. 155–72.

H.C. Norman, Buddhist Legends of Asoka and his Times, translated from the Pali of the Rasavāhinī by Laksmana Sāstri, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. NS 6, 1910, pp. 52–72.

Ann Appleby Hazelwood (tr.), Saddhammopāyana, JPTS XII, 1988, pp. 65–168.

B.C. Law (tr.), Telakatāhagāthā: Verses on Oil-Pot, Indian Culture V, Calcutta 1938–1939.

S.K. Rāmachandra Rao (ed. and tr.), Song in the Cauldron of Oil, Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society XLVII, Bangalore 1957.

C. Sameresingha (tr.), The Dying Arahat’s Sermon, The Buddhist Ray, Santa Cruz (California) 1889–90; reprinted in Pali Buddhist Review 2, London 1977.

Charles Hallisey (ed.), Tundilovāda: an Allegedly Non-Canonical Sutta, JPTS XV, 1990, pp. 155–95.

Charles Hallisey (tr.), The Advice to Layman Tundila, Buddhism in Practice, ed. Donald S.Lopez, Princeton 1995, pp. 302–13.

H. Saddhatissa, (ed. H.), Upāsakajanālankāra: The Adornment of the Laity, with English synopses, PTS 1965.

Thailand (Siam)

Steven Collins, The Story of the Elder Māleyyadeva, JPTS XVIII, 1993, pp. 65–96.

Oskar von Hinüber, Chips from Buddhist Workshops. Scribes and Manuscripts from Northern Thailand, JPTS XXII, 1996, pp. 35–57.

Padmanabh S. Jaini, ”Akāravattārasutta: An ’Apocryphal’ Sutta from Thailand,” Indo-Iranian Journal 35, 1992, pp. 192–223.

Bunyen Limsawaddi (tr.), Stanzas on the Ten Perfections, The Wisdom Gone Beyond, Bangkok 1966.

Hans Penth, Buddhist Literature of Lān Nā on the History of Lān Nā’s Buddhism, JPTS XXIII, 1997, pp. 43–81.

H. Saddhatissa, Pali Literature of Thailand (including Laos). Buddhist Studies in Honour of I.B. Horner, ed. L.S. Cousins et al, Dordrecht 1974; reprinted in Pāli Literature of South-East Asia, Singapore 1993, 2004.

Peter Skilling, The Sambuddha verses and later Theravādin Buddhology, JPTS XXII, 1996, pp. 151–83.

Kenneth E. Wells, Thai Buddhism: Its Rites and Activities, Bangkok 1940, 1975. A comprehensive survey which includes (in translation) all the Pāli stanzas recited on all religious, social and state occasions.

Cambodia and Laos

Charles Hallisey The Sutta on Nibbāna as a Great City. Buddhist Essays. A Miscellany, ed. P. Sorata Thera et al. London 1992, pp. 38–67.

H. Saddhatissa:

Pali Studies in Cambodia, Buddhist Studies in honour of Walpola Rāhula, ed. S. Balasooriya et al, London 1980.

Pali Literature in Cambodia JPTS IX, 1981, and Literature in Pali from Laos (Studies in Pali and Buddhism, ed. A.K. Narain, Delhi 1979 all reprinted in Pāli Literature of South-East Asia, Singapore 1993, 2004.

5. Studies from Pali Sources

A. General Studies

G.F. Allen, The Buddha’s Philosophy, London 1959.

Anālayo S., Satipatthāna. The Direct Path to Realization, Birmingham and BPS 2003. A detailed textual study of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta including its translation.

Carol S. Anderson, Pain and its Ending. The Four Noble Truths in the Theravāda Buddhist Canon, Richmond (Surrey) 1999, Delhi 2001.

Harvey B. Aronson, Love and Sympathy in Theravada Buddhism, Delhi 1980, 1986. A survey based on the four main Nikāyas, their Commentaries and the Visuddhimagga.

S.C. Banerji, An Introduction to Pali Literature, Calcutta 1964.

P.V. Bapat (ed.), 2500 Years of Buddhism, Delhi 1956, 1987. Includes a survey of VP, SP and Dhp.

V. Bhattacharya, Buddhist Texts as recommended by Asoka, Calcutta 1948.

Anne M. Blackburn, Buddhist Learning and Textual Practice in the Eighteenth Century Lankan Monastic Culture, Princeton 2001.

Kathryn R. Blackstone, Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha. Struggle for Liberation in the Therigatha, London 1998.

George D. Bond, The Word of the Buddha, Colombo 1982. On the Tipiṭaka and its interpretation in Theravada Buddhism.

Siddhi Butr-Indr, The Social Philosophy of Buddhism, Bangkok 1973.

Choong Mun-keat:

The Fundamental Teachings of Early Buddhism, Wiesbaden 2000.

The Notion of Emptiness in Early Buddhism, Singapore 1995, Delhi 1999.

Steven Collins:

On the very idea of the Pali Canon, JPTS XV, 1990, pp. 89–126.

Selfless Persons: Imagery and thought in Theravāda Buddhism, Cambridge 1982, 1994.

Mary Cummings, The Lives of the Buddha in the Art and Literature of Asia, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1982. Includes a selection from the Jātakas.

James D’Alwis, Buddhism: its Origins, History and Doctrines, its Scriptures and their Language, Pali, Colombo 1862, JPTS 1883, reprinted 1978.

Asha Das, A Literary Appraisal of Pali Poetical Works, Calcutta 1994.

C. de Saram, The Pen Portraits of Ninety-Three Eminent Disciples of the Buddha, Colombo 1971.

M.G. Dhadhale, Synonymic Collocations in the Tipiṭaka: A Study, Poona 1980.

James Egge, Religious Giving and the Invention of Karma in Theravāda Buddhism, Richmond (Surrey) 2002.

Toshiichi Endo, Dana: The Development of Its Concept and Practice, Colombo 1987.

Jan T. Ergardt, Faith and Knowledge in Early Buddhism, Leiden 1977. An analysis of the contextual structures of an Arahant-formula in the Majjhima Nikāya.

J. Evola, The Doctrine of Awakening. A study on the Buddhist Ascesis, London 1951, Rochester (Vermont) 1995. Illustrated from the four main Nikāyas, Dhp and Sn, this work remains the most radical interpretation of the subject.

Paul Fuller, The Notion of Diṭṭhi in Theravāda Buddhism, Richmond (Surrey) 2005.

Wilhelm Geiger, Pali Literature and Language, Calcutta 1943, Delhi 1968.

Rupert Gethin:

The Buddhist Path to Awakening. A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiyā Dhammā, Leiden 1992.

The Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford 1998.

Helmuth von Glasenapp, Buddhism, a Non-Theistic Religion, New York 1966, London 1970. Includes extensive references to devas in the Canon.

Richard Gombrich, How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings, London and Atlantic Highlands (New Jersey) 1996, Richmond (Surrey) 2000.

L.R. Goonesekere, Buddhist Commentarial Literature, BPS 1967.

L. Grey, Concordance of Buddhist Birth Stories, PTS 2000.

George Grimm, The Doctrine of the Buddha: The Religion of Reason and Meditation, Leipzig 1926, East Berlin 1958, Delhi 1973. Despite the controversial nature of this classic tome, the author claimed that he has built up his work exclusively on the Sutta Piṭaka.

Ānanda W.P. Guruge, Buddhism: The Religion and Its Culture,Madras 1975, rev. ed., Colombo 1984. Includes a concise analysis of Buddhist Literature (Ch. V) together with an anthology from SP (Ch. VI).

J.R. Halder, Early Buddhist Mythology, New Delhi 1977. A comprehensive study based mainly on the Vimānavatthu, Petavatthu and Buddhavaṃsa.

Sue Hamilton, Early Buddhism: A New Approach, London 2000.

Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind: Personality and Consciousness, and Nirvana in Early Buddhism, Richmond (Surrey) 1995.

K.L. Hazra:

Pāli Language and Literature, 2 volumes, New Delhi 1994.

Studies on Pali Commentaries, New Delhi 1991.

History of Theravāda Buddhism in South-East Asia, New Delhi 1982.

Rise and Decline of Buddhism in India, New Delhi 1998.

Buddhist Annals and Chronicles of South-East Asia, New Delhi 2002.

Hellmuth Hecker—all BPS:

Ānanda: The Guardian of the Dhamma, 1980.

Anāthapiṇḍika: The Great Benefactor, 1986.

Anuruddha: Master of the Divine Eye, 1989.

Life of Aṅgulimāla, 1984.

Life of Mahā Moggallāna, 1979.

Lives of the Disciples I, 1967. Contains The Upāsaka Citta, The Bhikkhu Citta, and Father and Mother Nakula.

Mahā Kassapa: Father of the Sangha, 1987.

O. V. Hinüber, A Handbook of Pāli Literature, Berlin, New York, New Delhi 1996.

Frank J. Hoffman and Deegalle Mahinda (ed.), Pāli Buddhism, Richmond (Surrey) 1996.

I.B. Horner

The Basic Position of Sīla, BSS 1950.

Early Buddhism and the Taking of Life, BPS 1967.

The Early Buddhist Theory of Man Perfected. A Study of the Arahant, London 1936, Amsterdam 1975, New Delhi 1979.

Women in Early Buddhist Literature, BPS 1961.

Women under Primitive Buddhism, London 1930, Delhi 1973, Amsterdam 1975.

Huyen-Vi, A Critical Study of the Life and Works of Sāriputta Thera, Saigon 1972, Linh-So’n, Paris 1989.

S. Jayawardhana, Handbook of Pali Literature, Colombo 1994.

Rune E.A. Johansson:

The Dynamic Psychology of Buddhism, London 1983. A study of paṭiccasamuppāda from SP.

The Psychology of Nirvana, London 1969, New York 1970. The goal of Buddhism clarified by means of SP.

Susan Elbaum Jootla, Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns, BPS 1988. An essay based on the Therigatha and Bhikkhuni Saṃyutta.

Y. Karunadasa, Buddhist Analysis of Matter, Colombo 1967.


Banner of the Arahants, BPS 1979. A detailed history and account of the Bhikkhu Sangha.

Pointing to Dhamma Bangkok 1973. Thirty discourses based on Pali texts.

Kheminda, Path Fruit and Nibbāna, Colombo 1965. The path to Nibbāna illustrated from Pali sources.

Ria Kloppenborg, The Paccekabuddha, Leiden 1974, abridged ed. BPS 1983. A study of asceticism from canonical and commentarial literature, including a translation of Sn 1:3.

Baidyanath Labh, Paññā in Early Buddhism, Delhi 1991. A philosophical analysis with special reference to the Visuddhimagga.

B.C. Law:

A History of Pali Literature, 2 volumes London 1933, Varanasi 1974. Volume I comprises a detailed analysis of SP.

The Life and Work of Buddhaghosa, Calcutta 1923, Bombay 1946, Delhi 1976.

Ko Lay, Guide to Tipiṭaka Rangoon 1986, Delhi 1990, Bangkok 1993, Dehiwela 1998.

Ledi Sayādaw:

Bodhipakkhiya Dipani: The Requisites of Enlightenment, BPS 1971.

Catusacca Dipani: Manual of the Four Truths. (?)

Maggaṅga Dipani: Manual of the Constituents of the Noble Path, Rangoon 1961, Abingdon 1984. Rev. ed., The Noble Eightfold Path and its Factors Explained, BPS 1977.

Niyama Dipani: Manual of Cosmic Order, Mandalay 1921.

Sammadiṭṭhi Dipani: Manual of Right Understanding, The Light of the Dhamma (N.S.), Rangoon 1982.

Vipassana Dipani: Manual of Insight, Mandalay 1915, BPS 1961.

Uttamapurisa Dīpanī

Vijjāmagga Dīpanī

N.B. The above Manuals also appeared in the first series of The Light of the Dhamma, (1950s) and were off printed in one volume entitled The Manuals of Buddhism, Rangoon, 1965, Bangkok 1978, Delhi 1997.

T.O. Ling, Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil, London 1962. A comprehensive survey of all references to Māra in the Canon.

James P. McDermott, Development in the Early Buddhist Concept of Kamma/Karma, New Delhi 1984.

Peter Masefield, Divine Revelation in Pali Buddhism, Colombo 1986.

Bruce Matthews, Craving and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist Soteriology, Waterloo (Ontario) 1983.

Muni Shri Nāgarajji, Agama and Tripiṭaka: A Comparative Study I, Historical Background, New Delhi 198

Hajime Nakamura:

Gotama Buddha, Los Angeles-Tokyo 1977.

Indian Buddhism. A Survey with Bibliographical Notes, Osaka 1980, Delhi 1987.

Ñāṇananda, Concept and Reality in Early Buddhist Thought, BPS 1971. An essay on papañca and papañca-saññā-saṅkha.


The Bodhisatta Ideal, Colombo 1963. The Ten Perfections illustrated from the Jātakas.

The Buddha and His Teachings, Saigon 1964, Colombo 1973, BMS 1977, BPS 1980.

Sunthorn Na-Rangsi, The Buddhist Concepts of Karma and Rebirth, Bangkok 1976. With special reference to the Pali Canon.

K.R. Norman:

Pali Literature, Wiesbaden 1983.

A Philological Approach to Buddhism, SOAS, London 1997, PTS, 2006.

Collected Papers, 7 volumes, PTS 1990–2001.


Anatta and Nibbāna, BPS 1959, reprinted in Pathways of Buddhist Thought, London 1971.

Buddhism and the God-Idea, BPS 1962.

The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, Colombo 1954, London 1983. Includes M 10 and related texts.

The Life of Sāriputta, BPS 1966.

The Vision of Dhamma: Buddhist Writings of Nyanaponika Thera, London 1986.

Nyanaponika and H. Hecker, Great Disciples of the Buddha, Boston 1997.

Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara (formerly Phra Sasana Sobhana). Contemplation of the Body, Bangkok 1974. The transcription of nineteen talks on the first foundation of mindfulness.

C. Nyanasatta, Basic Tenets of Buddhism, Colombo 1965.

Hermann Oldenberg, Buddha: His Life, His Doctrine, His Order, London 1882, Delhi 1971. The first major exposition of Buddhism in the West based entirely on the Pali Canon.

G.C. Pande, Studies in the Origins of Buddhism, Allahabad University 1957, Delhi 1974. Includes a comprehensive analysis of the four main Nikāyas.

Joaquin Perez-Remon, Self and Non-Self in Early Buddhism, The Hague 1980.

Piyadassi, The Buddha’s Ancient Path, London 1964, BPS 1974. A detailed analysis of the Four Noble Truths and Noble Eightfold Path.

Walpola Rāhula, What the Buddha Taught, Bedford 1959, New York 1962, Dehiwela 2006. Includes a short anthology from SP.

Rajesh Rañjan, Exegetical Literature in Pali: Origin and Development, Delhi 2005.

C.A.F. Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology, London 1914. An inquiry into the analysis of mind in Pali literature. Rewritten as The Birth of Indian Psychology and its Development in Buddhism, London 1936.

T.W. Rhys Davids, Buddhism: Its History and Literature, New York 1896, Calcutta 1962, Varaṇasi 1975—Lecture II from The Hibbert Lectures 1881, London 1891. Includes probably the earliest accurate analysis of the Pali Canon.

H. Saddhātissa:

The Buddha’s Way, London 1971. Includes selected suttas.

The Life of the Buddha, London 1976. Includes the salient features of the Buddha’s teaching mission based on VP and SP.

E.R. Saratchandra, Buddhist Psychology of Perception, Colombo 1958, Dehiwela 1994.

Juliane Schober (ed.), Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia, Honolulu 1997.

Ved Seth, Study of Biographies of the Buddha, Delhi 1992.

Sheo Kumar Singh, History and Philosophy of Buddhism, Patna 1982. Based mainly on Pali Canonical and exegetical literature.

Harcharan Singh Sobti, Nibbāna in Early Buddhism, Delhi 1985. Based on Pali Sources from 6th B.C. to 5th A.D.

G.A. Somaratne, Intermediate Existence and the Higher Fetters in the Pāli Nikāyas, JPTS XXV, 1999, pp. 121–54.

R.L. Soni, The Only Way to Deliverance, Boulder 1980. Includes D 22.

Donald K. Swearer, A Guide to the Perplexed: The Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta, BPS 1973.

S. Tachibana, The Ethics of Buddhism, Oxford 1926, BSS 1961, London and Totowa (New Jersey) 1981, Richmond (Surrey) 1995. A study from the SP.

Meena Talin, Women in Early Buddhist Literature, Bombay University 1972. Includes Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha.

Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu, The Wings to Awakening, Barre (Mass.) 1996.

E.J. Thomas, The History of Buddhist Thought, London 1933, Richmond (Surrey) 1997. Includes a short analysis of the Canon.

Mahesh Tiwary, Sīla, Samādhi and Prajna: The Buddha’s Path of Purification, Patna 1987.

Entai Tomomatsu:

Lectures on the Dhammapada, Tokyo 1956–1959.

Lectures on the Saṃyutta Ratha, Tokyo 1960.

Paravahera Vajiranana, Buddhist Meditation in Theory and Practice, Colombo 1962, BMS 1975. A General Exposition according to the Pali Canon of the Theravada School.

Nina van Gorkom, Buddhism in Daily Life, Bangkok 1977. Illustrated by relevant passages from SP.

Tilmann Vetter, The ‘Khandha Passages’ in the Vinayapiṭaka and the four main Nikāyas, Vienna 2000.

A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism, Delhi 1970, rev. ed. 1980.

Fumimaro Watanabe, Philosophy and its Development in the Nikāyas and Abhidhamma, Delhi 1981.

David Webster, Philosophy of Desire in the Buddhist Pali Canon, London 2005.

R.G. de S. Wettimuny, The Buddha’s Teaching: It’s Essential Meaning, Colombo 1969. Based on Ñāṇavira’s radical interpretation of the earliest Nikāya material.

K.D.P. Wickremesinghe, The Biography of the Buddha, Colombo 1972. A detailed narrative interspersed with extracts from VP and SP.

O.H. de A. Wijesekera, The Three Signata, BPS 1960. Essay on anicca, dukkha and anattā illustrated from the SP.

M. Winternitz, History of Indian Literature II, Calcutta 1933, New Delhi 1972.

Yashpal, A Cultural Study of Early Pali Tipitikas (sic), 2 volumes, Delhi 1998.

B. Vinaya Studies

D.N. Bhagavat, Early Buddhist Jurisprudence, Poona 1939. A study of the Vinaya.

William M. Bodiford, Going Forth. Visions of Buddhist Vinaya, Honolulu 2005.

Jotiya Dhirasekera, Buddhist Monastic Discipline, Colombo 1982.

R. Spence Hardy, Eastern Monachism, An account of the origins, laws, discipline, sacred writings, religious ceremonies and present circumstances of the order of mendicants founded by Gotama Buddha. Compiled from Sinhalese Pali manuscripts, etc. London 1850, Delhi 1989.

John C. Holt, Discipline: The Canonical Buddhism of the Vinayapiṭaka, Delhi 1983.

Ute Husken, The Legend of the Establishment of the Buddhist Order of Nuns in the Theravāda Vinaya-Piṭaka, JPTS XXVI, 2000, pp. 43–69.

Prince Jinavarasirivaddhana, Sāmaṇerasikkha—the Novice’s Training, Bangkok 1967.

Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, A Comparative Study of Bhikkhuni Patimokkha, Varaṇasi 1984.

G.S.P. Misra, The Age of Vinaya, New Delhi 1972. An historical and cultural study of the Vinaya.

Edith Nolot, Studies in Vinaya Technical Terms I-III, JPTS XXII, 1996, pp. 73–150; IV-X. JPTS XXV, 1999, pp. 1–111.

W. Pachow, A Comparative Study of the Pratimoksha, on the basis of its Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali versions. Shantiniketan 1955.

Charles S. Prebish, A Survey of Vinaya Literature, Taipei 1994.

Vajirañāṇavarorasa (tr. Vinayamukha):

The Entrance to the Vinaya, 3 volumes, Bangkok 1970–83. An introduction to the Vinaya including an explanation of the pātimokkha rules.

Navakovāda. Instructions for Newly Ordained Bhikkhus and Sāmaṇeras, 2 Bangkok 1971. Explains basic rules to be observed.

Ordination Procedure, Bangkok 1963, rev. 1990. Includes chapters explaining the basis of Vinaya.

Mohan Wijayaratna:

Buddhist Monastic Life According to the Texts of the Theravāda Tradition, Cambridge 1990.

Buddhist Nuns. The Birth and Development of a Women's Monastic Order, Colombo 2001.

L.P.N. Perera, Sexuality in Ancient India. A Study Based on the Pali Vinayapiṭaka, Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies Publications. Colombo, 1993.

Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey de Graff), The Buddhist Monastic Code I and II, Valley Center, 2007 (revised edition). Extensive explanation of the Pātimokkha and Suttavibhaṅga rules (Part I) and the Khandhaka regulations and rules (Part II).

Bhikkhu Ariyesako, The Bhikkhu's Rules: A Guide for Laypeople, Kalista, 1998. The Theravadin Buddhist Monk's Rules compiled and explained.

C. Sutta Studies

Oliver Abeynayake, A Textual and Historical Analysis of the Khuddaka Nikāya, Colombo 1984

Mark Allon, Style and Function. A study of the dominant stylistic features of the prose portions of Pali canonical sutta texts and their mnemonic function, Tokyo 1997.

D.K. Barua, An Analytical Study of Four Nikāyas, Calcutta 1971, Delhi 2003. An outline of D, M, S and A.

Bodhesako, Beginnings: The Pali Suttas, BPS 1984.

Burma Piṭaka Association, Ten Suttas from Dīgha Nikāya. Three Fundamental Concepts and Comments on Salient Points in each Sutta, Rangoon 1985.

Nissim Cohen, A Note on the Origin of the Pāli Dhammapada Verses, Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1989, pp. 130–52.

Sally Mellick Cutler, The Pāli Apadāna Collection, JPTS XX, 1994, pp. 1–42.

Gokuldas De, Significance and Importance of Jātakas with special reference to Bharhut, University of Calcutta 1951.

Leon Feer, A Study of the Jātakas, analytical and critical, Calcutta 1963.

P. Gnanarama, The Mission Accomplished: A Historical Analysis of the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta of the Dīgha Nikāya of the Pāli Canon, Singapore 1997.

N.A. Jayawickrama, A Critical Analysis of the Pali Sutta-Nipāta, serialised in University of Ceylon Review VI-IX, 1948–51, and Pali Buddhist Review 1–3, London 1976–78.

John Garrett Jones, Tales and Teachings of the Buddha. The Jātaka Stories in relation to the Pali Canon, London 1979.

Phra Khantipālo, Where’s that Sutta? A Subject Index to the Aṅguttara-Nikāya, JPTS X, 1985, pp. 37–54.

Joy Manné:

Categories of Sutta in the Pāli Nikāyas, JPTS XV, 1990, pp. 29–87.

The Dīgha Nikāya Debates, Buddhist Studies Review 9, 1992, pp. 117–36.

On a Departure Formula and its Translation,. Ibid. 10, 1993, pp. 27–43.

Case Histories from the Pāli Canon I: The Sāmaññaphala Sutta Hypothetical Case History, JPTS XXI, 1995, pp. 1–34; II: Sotāpanna, Sakadāgāmin, Anāgāmin, Arahat.

The Four Stages Case History, ibid., pp. 35–128.

Sīhanāda – The Lion’s Roar, Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1996, pp. 7–36.

Minh Chau, The Chinese Madhyama Agama and Pāli Majjhima Nikāya, Saigon 1964, Delhi 1991.

K.R. Norman:

On Translating the Dhammapada,. Buddhist Studies Review 6, 1989, pp. 153–65.

On Translating the Suttanipāta, Ibid. 21, 2004, pp. 69–84.

W. Pachow, Comparative Studies in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta and its Chinese Versions, Shantiniketan 1946.

Piyasīlo, Translating Buddhist Sutras, (sic), Petaling Jaya 1989.

P.D. Premasiri, The Philosophy of the Atthakavagga, BPS 1972. An elucidation of the themes in Sn 4.

Vijitha Rajapakse, Therīgāthā: On Feminism, Aestheticism and Religiosity in an Early Buddhist Verse Anthology, Buddhist Studies Review 12, 1995, pp. 7–26, 135–55. Reprinted as The Therīgāthā, BPS 2000.

Sadhanchandra Sarkar, A Study on the Jātakas and the Avadānas, Calcutta 1981.

B.C. Sen, Studies in the Buddhist Jātakas, Calcutta 1930, 1974.

R.L. Soni, Life’s Highest Blessing, Mandalay 1956, BPS 1978. A commentary on the Maṅgala Sutta.

Susunaga Weeraperuma, The First and Best Buddhist Teachings: Sutta Nipāta, Selections and Inspired Essays, Delhi 2006.

D. Abhidhamma Studies

Alka Barua, Kathāvatthu: A Critical and Philosophical Study, Delhi 2006

Amal K. Barua, Mind and Mental Factors in Early Buddhist Psychology, New Delhi 1990.

N.K. Bhagwat, The Buddhistic Philosophy of the Theravada School, as embodied in the Pali Abhidhamma, Patna University 1929.

S.N. Dube, Cross Currents in Early Buddhism, Delhi 1980. A critical analysis of the Kathāvatthu.

Jagdish Kashyap, The Abhidhamma Philosophy II, Benares 1943, Patna 1954, Delhi 1982. Comprises an analysis of this Piṭaka.

Ledi Sayādaw, Paṭṭhānuddesa Dīpanī: Manual of the Philosophy of Relations, Rangoon 1935. Reprinted as The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations, BPS 1986.

U Nārada, Guide to Conditional Relations I, PTS 1979, II. Rangoon 1986.

Nyanaponika, Abhidhamma Studies, Dodanduwa 1949,BPS 1965, 2007. Essays mainly based on the Dhammasaṅgaṇī and Atthasālinī.

Nyanatiloka, Guide through the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, BSS 1938, BPS 1971.

Noe Ronkin, Early Buddhist Metaphysics. The Making of a Philosophical Tradition, Richmond (Surrey) 2005.

Nina van Gorkom:

Abhidhamma in Daily Life, Bangkok 1975.

Cetasikas, Bangkok 1977.

Chandra B. Varma, A Concise Encyclopaedia of Early Buddhist Philosophy based on the study of the Abhidhammatthasaṅgahasarūpa, Delhi 1992.

6. Journals

Innumerable popular Buddhist magazines and academic periodicals publish translations from the Pali Canon together with studies of the language and later or related literature. Invaluable studies are recorded in the journals of the Pali Text Society (1882–1927, reprinted 1978, and revived in 1981), Royal Asiatic Society, European, American, Indian, Sri Lankan and Thai university Oriental faculties and learned societies. However, three journals should be singled out for special mention:

The Blessing, ed. Cassius A. Perera (later Kassapa Thera), published by the Servants of the Buddha, Bambalapitiya, Sri Lanka. This appeared in ten issues during 1925 and contained, almost exclusively, translations from the SP (notably M 51–70) by Nārada and Mahinda.

The Light of the Dhamma, ed. David Maurice for the Union Buddha Sasana Council, Rangoon 1952–63. Apart from containing (on average) two suttas in each issue, this quarterly provided the first popular outlet for the writings of Ledi Sayādaw, Ñāṇamoli, Nyanaponika, Nyanasatta, Nyanatiloka, Francis Story and other leading Theravādins. Many of their translations and essays subsequently appeared in The Wheel series of the Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy.

PaIi Buddhist Review, ed. Russell Webb for the Pali Buddhist Union, Ilford, Essex (later London) 1976–82. This appeared thrice yearly and included translations and exegeses.

7. Pali Grammars and Dictionaries

Abhidhānappadipikā, (Dictionary of the Pali Language by Moggāllana, Colombo 1865, 1938. English and Sinhalese interpretations by W. Subhuti. Pāli terms in Sinhala script.

Medagama Nandawansa, Abhidhānappadipikā: A Study of the Text and Its Commentary, Pune 2001.

B. Ānanda Maitreya.

Pali Grammar and Composition, lessons 1–29 out of 34 serialised in Pali Buddhist Review 2–6, London 1977–82.

Pali Made Easy, Shizuoka 1993, Dehiwela 1997.

Dines Andersen, A Pāli Reader, Copenhagen and Leipzig: Part I, 1901, Glossary, 1904–1907, Kyoto 1968, New Delhi 1979. Reprinted as A Pāli Reader and Pāli Glossary, New Delhi 1996

Dhammakitti, tr. L. Lee, Bālāvatāra, a grammar, The Orientalist II, Kandy 1892; tr. H.T. de Silva and K. Upatissa, rev. F.L. Woodward, Pegu 1915.

S.C. Banerji, A Companion to Middle Indo-Aryan Literature. Calcutta 1977. A dictionary of Buddhist and Jaina texts.

P.V. Bapat and R.D. Vadekar, A Practical Pali Dictionary for the use of students in High Schools and Colleges, Poona 1940.

A. Barua, Introduction to Pali, Varaṇasi 1965, Delhi 1977. Pāli terms in Devanāgarī script.

D.L. Barua:

Pali Grammar, board of Secondary Education, W. Bengal, Calcutta 1956.

A Brief Vocabulary to the Pali Text of Jātakas I–XL, Rangoon 1895.

A.P. Buddhadatta—all Colombo otherwise indicated:

Aids to Pali Conversation and Translation, 1950.

Concise Pali-English Dictionary, 1949, Delhi 1997 (but reprinted by another Delhi publisher as Pāli-English Dictionary, 2000.

English-Pali Dictionary, 1955, Delhi 1989, PTS 1995.

The Higher Pali Course for Advanced Students, 1951, reprinted as New Pali Course III, Dehiwela 2005.

New Pali Course I, 1937, 1962; II. 1938, 1974; combined ed., Dehiwela 2006.

Palipāthāvalī, (a supplementary reader to the New Pali Course) Dehiwela 2003.

Tribhasharatnakara, A handbook of Pali conversation, with Sinhalese and English versions, Ambalangoda 1928.

N. Cakravarti and M.K. Ghose, Pali Grammar, reprinted Delhi 1983.

K.K. Chandaburinarunath, Pali-Thai-Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Bangkok 1969, 1977.

R.C. Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language, London 1872–75, Rangoon 1974, Kyoto 1976, New Delhi 1981, Delhi 2005.

B. Clough (tr. Bālāvatāra), A Compendious Pali Grammar with a copious vocabulary in the same language, Colombo 1824, 1832.

Steven Collins, A Pali Grammar for Students, Chiang Mai, 2006.

Margaret Cone, A Dictionary of Pāli Part I, A-Kh, PTS 2001.

Ed. V. Trenckner, D. Andersen, H. Smith et al, Critical Pāli Dictionary, Copenhagen: I. 1924–48, II.1960.

James D’Alwis, An Introduction to Kaccāyana’s Grammar of the Pali Language, Colombo 1863.

Lily de Silva, Pali Primer, Igatpuri 1994.

W.A. de Silva, A vocabulary to aid to speak the Hindu and Pali languages, Colombo 1903.

Charles Duroiselle, A Practical Grammar of the Pali Language. Rangoon 1907, 1921.

- School Pali Series – I. Reader, II. Vocabulary. Rangoon 1907–8.

T.Y. Elizarenkova and V.N. Toporov, The Pali Language, Moscow 1976.

K.C. Fernando, A Student’s Pali-English Dictionary, Colombo 1950. Pāli terms in Sinhala script.

Oscar Frankfurter, Handbook of Pali, London-Edinburgh 1883. An elementary grammar.

James W. Gair and W.S. Karunatilaka, Introduction to Reading Pali, Cornell University 1975. Reprinted as A New Course in Reading Pali, Delhi 1998, 2005.

Wilhelm Geiger Pāli Literature and Language, Calcutta 1943, Delhi 1968. Language rev. by K.R. Norman as Pāli Grammar, PTS 1994.

James Gray:

Elements of Pāli Grammar, Rangoon 1883. Pāli terms in Burmese script.

Elementary Pāli Grammar, (2nd Pāli course). Calcutta 1905.

First Pāli Course, Calcutta 1913.

First Pāli Delectus, (companion reader to his Pāli course). Ib.

First Lessons in Pāli, 3rd ed., Rangoon 1882.

Pāli Courses, 3 parts, including translations of stories 13–31 in D. Andersen, Pāli Reader, Calcutta 1904.

Pāli Primer, Adapted for schools in Burma, Moulmein 1879.

Pāli Poetry, Calcutta 1909.

Pāli Prose, 2 parts, including translations of portions of D. Andersen, Pāli Reader, Calcutta 1905.

K. Higashimoto, An Elementary Grammar of the Pali Language, Tokyo 1965.

P. Holler, The Student’s Manual of Indian Vedic-Sanskrit-Prakrit-Pali Literature, Rajahmundri 1901.

Peter A. Jackson, A Topic Index of the Sutta Piṭaka, Bangkok 1986. Pāli technical terms in Roman and Thai scripts with brief English and Thai translations cross-referred to the books/sections of SP.

Rune E.A. Johansson, Pali Buddhist Texts, explained to beginners, Copenhagen 1973, London 1976.

C.V. Joshi, A Manual of Pali, (Pāli terms in Devanāgari) Poona 1916, 1964, Delhi 2005.

J.R. Joshi, Introduction to Pali, Pune 1985.

I.Y. Junghare, Topics in Pāli Historical Phonology, Delhi 1979.

D. Kosambi and C.V. Rajwade, Pali-Reader, 2 parts, Poona 1914–16.

Lim Teong Aik, A Glossary of Buddhist Terms in Four Languages—English, Chinese, Pāli and Sanskrit, Penang 1960.

T.O. Ling, A Dictionary of Buddhism, New York 1972.

G.P. Malalasekera, Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names, 2 volumes, London 1937, 3 volumes, PTS and New Delhi 1997.

Francis Mason, Pali Grammar on the Basis of Kaccāyana, Toungoo-London 1866, Delhi 1984.

Madhusudan Mishra, Comparative and Historical Pali Grammar, New Delhi 1986.

J. Minayeff (I.P. Minaev), Pali Grammar, a phonetic and morphological sketch of Pali Language, with introductory essay on its form and character, Moulmein 1882, New Delhi 1990.

E. Müller:

A Glossary of Pali Proper Names, offprint from JPTS 1888 (reprinted 1978), Delhi 1989.

A Simplified Grammar of the Pali Language, London 1884, Delhi 1986.

Ñāṇamoli A Pali-English Glossary of Buddhist Technical Terms, BPS 1994, 2006.

Nārada, An Elementary Pali Course, Colombo 1941, 1953.


Buddha-Vacanam, (Texts for the Word of the Buddha) BPS 1968.

Buddhist Dictionary, Island Hermitage Publications, Dodanduwa 1950, Colombo 1972, BPS 1988, 2003.

Tha Do Oung, A Grammar of the Pali Language, 4 volumes, Akyab 1899–1902.

Ed. F.L. Woodward, E.M. Hare, K.R. Norman, A.K. and N. Warder, H. Saddhatissa, I. Fisher, Pāli Tipiṭakam Concordance, PTS, I. 1952–1955; II. 1966–1975; III. 1963.

Madihe Paññāsīha (ed.), Pali Dictionary I, I: A-Akkhabhañjana, Mahārāgama 1975. Pāli in Sinhala and Roman scripts with Sinhalese and English translations.

V. Perniola, A Grammar of the Pali Language, Colombo 1958. Rev. as Pāli Grammar, PTS 1997.

Widurupola Piyatissa, The English-Pali Dictionary, Colombo 1949. Pāli terms in Sinhala script.

Arayaṅkhura Prayuddha, Students Thai-Pali-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, Bangkok 1963.

Rajavaramuni, all Bangkok:

A Dictionary of Buddhism, (Pāli terms in Thai script). 1976, 1985.

Pali-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, 1963, 1969.

Thai-Pali-English Dictionary of Buddhism, 3rd ed., 1970.

T.W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede Pali-English Dictionary. PTS 1921–1925, 1986; reprinted Delhi 2007.

Sīlavaṃsa, Kaccāyana’s Dhātumañjūsā Colombo 1872. Edited with Sinhalese and English translations by B. Devarakkhita (alias Don A. de S. Batuwantudawe).

S. Sumaṅgala, A Graduated Pali Course, Colombo 1913, Dehiwela 1994.

J. Takakusu, A Pali Chrestomathy, Tokyo 1900.

H.H. Tilbe:

Pali First Lessons, Rangoon 1902.

Pali Grammar, Rangoon 1899.

Pe Maung Tin:

A Pali Primer, Rangoon 1914.

The Student’s Pali-English Dictionary, Rangoon 1920.

Udornganādhikāra (Javinda Sragam), Pali-Thai-English Dictionary, 8 volumes, Bangkok 1962.

A.C.G. Vidyabhūsan, Selections from Pali, Calcutta 1911.

S.C. Vidyabhūsan, Kaccāyana’s Pali Grammar, Calcutta 1901.

S.C. Vidyabhūsan and Swami Punnanand (ed. and tr.), Bālāvatāra: An Elementary Pali Grammar, Calcutta University 1916, 1935.

J. Wade, A Dictionary of Boodhism and Burman Literature, Moulmein 1862, Rangoon 1911.

M.O’C. Walshe, Pali and the Pali Canon, English Sangha Trust, London 1968.

A.K. Warder, Introduction to Pali, PTS 1963, 1984.

O.H. de A. Wijesekera, Syntax of Cases in the Pāli Nikāyas, Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies Publications, Colombo 1993.

U Wimala, A New Elementary Pali Grammar, Rangoon n.d.

Appendix: Some On-line Refences

Internet references:

Other links:

A History of Pali Literature by Bimala Churn Law:

Buddhism, its History and Literature, by T.W. Rhys Davids:

Chairman of the Pali Text Society, Secretary and Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature at University College, London

Burmese Grammars etc. for download:


1.This is an alternate title for the Nava Sutta.

2.This is an alternate title for the Dhammacariya Sutta.

3.This is an alternate title for the Vijaya Sutta.

4.This is an alternate title for the Sammāparibbājanīya Sutta.

5.This is an alternate title for the Mahāmaṅgala Sutta.

6.This is an alternate title for the Nālaka Sutta.

7.This is an alternate title for the Vaṅgīsa Sutta.

8.This is an alternate title for the Sundarikabhāradvāja Sutta.

9.This is an alternate title for the Hemavata Sutta.

10.This is an alternate title for the Sāriputta Sutta