1. Corresponding to Pali vesākha, Sanskrit vaisākha, and Sinhala vesak.

2. Unlike the Christian Era, the Buddha Era is reckoned from the death of the Buddha, which occurred in 543 BCE (in his 80th year), and not from his birth.

3. A pillar, erected at this sacred spot by King Asoka, still stands to this day to commemorate the event.

4. The site of Kapilavatthu has been identified with Bhuila (Bhulya) in the Basti district, three miles from the Bengal and N. W. Railway station of Babuan.

5. See Prince Siddhattha's Genealogical Table (Father's Side).

6. Gotama is the family name, and Sākya is the name of the race to which the Buddha belonged.

Tradition holds that the sons of King Okkāka of the Mahāsammata line, were exiled through the plotting of their step-mother. These princes, in the course of their wanderings, arrived at the foothills of the Himalayas. Here they met the sage Kapila, on whose advice, and after whom, they founded the city of Kapilavatthu, the site of Kapila. King Okkāka, hearing of the enterprise of the princes, exclaimed, "Capable, indeed, are the noble princes" (sakyā vata bho rājakumārā). Hence the race and the kingdom they originated were known by the name Sākya. The Sākya kingdom was situated in South Nepal and extended over much of modern Oudh. See E. J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p. 6.

7. See Warren, Buddhism in Translations, p. 49 and Jātaka Commentary.

On Asita's advice his nephew Nālaka renounced the world and when the prince, as expected, attained buddhahood, he heard his teaching and became an arahant. See Sutta Nipāta 3.11.

8. Arūpalokas are immaterial planes where those who have developed the arūpa jhānas (absorptions or ecstasies) are born.

9. Skt. Siddhārtha Gautama.

10. Hearing that Prince Siddhattha had renounced the world, this Kondañña and four sons of the other seven brahmins retired from the world and joined him as his followers. These were the first five chief disciples of the Buddha. See Ch. 6.

11. See Mahā Saccaka Sutta, MN 36.

12. Jhāna—a developed state of consciousness gained by concentration.

13. Also known as Bhaddakaccānā, Bimbā, Rāhulamātā.

14. A province in Central India noted for silk. Modern Benares was its capital.

15. Aṅguttara Nikāya, part I, p. 145; Gradual Sayings, part I p. 128.

16. Majjhima Nikāya. Part 1, Ariyapariyesana Sutta, No.26, p. 163.

17. Mahā Saccaka Sutta, MN 36

18. "Seeing the four signs, I set out on horse-back …" Buddhavaṃsa, XXVI, p. 65.

19. Lit., bound or seized (la) by a fetter (rāhu).

20. The third arūpa jhāna.

21. The fourth arūpa jhāna

22. Another name for Māra. According to the Pali Commentaries there are five kinds of Māras: i. deity Māra (devaputta), ii. passion (kilesa), iii. kammic activities (abhisaṅkhāra), iv. aggregates (khandha), and v. death (maccu).

23. Padhāna Sutta, (Sn iii.2)

24. Resulting from voluntary poverty.

25. That is, indecision as to the certainty of the goal.

26. Warriors wear Muñja grass crest on their heads or on their banners to indicate that they will not retreat from the battlefield

27. Saṅgāme me mataṃ seyyo—Yañ-ce jīve parājito

28. See Ploughing Festival.

29. Āsavas (defilements)—are those which flow right up to the topmost plane of existence with respect to spheres, or right up to the gotrabhū state, with respect to mind-flux. There are four āsavas, viz.: sense-desires (kāma), becoming (bhava), false views (diṭṭhi) and ignorance (avijjā). In this particular text only three are mentioned. Here bhava means the desire to be born in the realms of form and formless realms (rūpa and arūpa bhava).

30. Vimutto'smi.

31. Khiṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇiyaṃ nāparaṃ itthattāyā'ti.

32. His disciples addressed him as Buddha, Bhagavā (Exalted One), Sugata (Well-Gone One) etc., while alien followers addressed him as Bho Gotama, (Venerable Gotama), Samaṇa Gotama (Ascetic Gotama), etc.. Referring to himself the Buddha used the term "tathāgata" meaning "he who hath thus come," "he who hath thus gone."

33. Paccekabuddha: a solitary buddha who does not preach truth to the world.

34. Skt bodhisattva.

35. Saṃyutta Nikāya, part iii, p. 66; Kindred Sayings, part iii, p. 58.

36. Majjhima Nikāya, Ariyapariyesana Sutta MN 26.

37. Such as Kondañña, Ālāra Kālāma, Uddakka Rāmaputta etc.

38. Majjhima Nikāya, Ariyapariyesana Sutta, MN 26.

39. A celestial being who resides in heavenly planes.

40. A heavenly musician.

41. A demon.

42. Gradual Sayings, Pt. ii, pp. 44-45, Aṅguttara Nikāya, Pt. ii—p.37.

43. Paritrānāya sādhūnām vināsāya ca duskrtām.

Dharmsamsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge.

44. Hindu teachers, however, with the object of bringing within the fold of Hinduism the increasing adherents of Buddhism, have unjustly called the Buddha God's incarnation (avatāra)—an idea which he repudiated in his own time.

45. Suddhi asuddhi paccattaṃ n'añño aññaṃ visodhaye. Dhp v. 165.

46. Tumhehi kiccaṃ ātappaṃ akkhātāro tathāgatā…. Dhp v. 276

47. Attadīpā viharatha, attapaṭisaraṇā anaññasaraṇā. Dīgha Nikāya, Mahāparinibbāna Sutta Vol. 2, p. 100.

48. Dwight Goddard, Buddhist Bible, p. 20.

49. Sri Radhakrishnan, Gautama the Buddha, p. 1.

50. The famous pipal tree at Buddha Gaya in northern India which sheltered him during his struggle for enlightenment.

51. See Ud I.1.

52. "Brahmin" is a racial term which means "one who studies the Vedas," generally applied to the priestly caste. Sometimes the Buddha uses this term in the sense of "one who has discarded evil"—a saint.

In this book "brāhmaṇa" is used to denote a saint, and "brahmin," to denote a member of that particular caste.

53. On the spot where the Buddha stood, a cetiya was erected by King Asoka. This was named Animisalocana cetiya and is still to be seen.

54. The right-hand branch of the original bodhi tree which was brought to Sri Lanka by Saṅghamittā Therī and planted by King Devānampiyatissa at Anurādhapura, the ancient capital of Sri Lanka, still exists in a flourishing condition, though more than 2200 years old.

55. So called because the Buddha reflected on the jewels of the Abhidhamma.

56. Namely, blue (nīla), yellow (pīta), red (lohita), white (odāta), orange (mañjeha) and a mixture of these five colours (pabhassara).

57. Udāna, p. 10.

58. These three cannot be personified passions as the incident took place after the enlightenment.

59. This Nāga king cannot be a human being. The Vinaya texts also cite an interesting story of a serpent, who, assuming the form of a human being, lived for some time as a bhikkhu in robes.

60. Sukho viveko tuhassa sutadhammassa passato
Abyāpajjhaṃ sukhaṃ loke pāṇabhutesu saṃyamo
Sukhā virāgatā loke kāmānaṃ samatikkamo
Asmimānassa yo vinayo etaṃ ve paramaṃ sukhaṃ.

—Udāna p. 10.

61. Dhp vv. 153-54. The 'house builder' is craving; the 'house' is the body; the 'rafters' are the defilements; the 'ridgepole' is ignorance, and the 'Unconditioned' is Nibbāna.

62. Aṅguttara Nikāya: part II, p. 20; Gradual Sayings, part II, p. 20.

63. This discourse was delivered by the Buddha while residing at Jetavana, Sāvatthī, long after the establishment of the order of the Sangha. He showed his reverence towards the Sangha by requesting the Queen Mahā Pajāpati Gotamī to offer to the Sangha the robe specially prepared for him.

64. Apārutā tesaṃ amatassa dvārā — ye sotavantā pamuñcantu saddhaṃ

65. See Majjhima Nikāya, Ariyapariyesana Sutta, No. 26

66. Devatās (Pali) are terrestrial or celestial deities, a class of beings, who, as a rule, are invisible to the physical eye. This particular feminine deity had been related to the merchants in a previous birth. It is interesting to note the non-human element appearing in various places connected with the life of the Buddha.

67. Sattu, fried flour, and madhu, honey, were a regular diet of travellers in India in the ancient days.

68. Cātummahārājikas, the guardian deities of the four quarters.

69. The commentary states that the Buddha wished that the four bowls be amalgamated into one.

70. Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi (I seek refuge in the Buddha), dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi (I seek refuge in the Dhamma), is the twofold formula. As the Saṅgha or the noble order was not in existence then they did not recite the third—saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi (I seek refuge in the Saṅgha). One becomes a Buddhist by intelligently reciting the three refuges.

71. The Jātaka commentary relates that when these two first converts begged of the Buddha to give them an object of worship the Buddha touched his head and presented them some hair relics. It is believed that these relics have been enshrined in the modern Swe Dagon Pagoda in Rangoon, the pride and glory of Burmese Buddhists. This bell-shaped massive cetiya appears like a golden mountain from a distance.

72. The first religious teacher who taught the bodhisatta the jhānas extending up to the realm of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana).

73. The second religious teacher who taught the bodhisatta the highest state of mundane mental development, the realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana).

74. The Buddha uttered these words because he attained enlightenment by himself without the aid of a teacher. He had teachers before his enlightenment, but nobody taught him the way to attain buddhahood. It is therefore not correct to say that Buddhism is a natural outgrowth of Hinduism.

75. Majjhima Nikāya, Ariyapariyesana Sutta, MN 26.

76. See The First Discourse of the Buddha: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta.

77. See The Second Discourse: Anattalakkhaṇa Sutta

78. Sri Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, vol. 1, pp. 281-282.

79. Lit. "wandering', i.e., the round of rebirths. See note 328.

80. Vinaya Mahāvagga, p. 10, Saṃyutta Nikāya V p. 420.

81. Modern Saraṇath where, in a former existence, the Master sacrificed his life to save a helpless doe and her unborn little one. The locality takes its modern name from the Bodhisatta who, in that ancient birth, was Sāranganātha, protector of the deer.

82. Kāmasukhallikānuyoga.

83. Attakilamathānuyoga.

84. Lit., "thus who hath come" or "thus who hath gone." When the Buddha refers to himself he usually uses this epithet.

85. Subjugation of passions.

86. Realisation of the four noble truths.

87. Attainment of the four paths and four fruits of saintship.

88. Pañcupadānakkhandhā: According to Buddhism this so-called being is composed of five groups, viz: rūpa, matter, vedanā, feeling, saññā, perception, saṅkhārā, mental states, and viññāṇa, consciousness. These are the five psycho-physical component parts that constitute an individual. Matter is composed of forces and qualities. Mind too is composed of mental states (cetasikas). They are fifty-two in number. Of them vedanā, and saññā are treated as two distinct groups. The remaining fifty are collectively called saṅkhārā.

89. They are: (i) the knowledge of the four truths (saccañāṇa); (ii) the knowledge as regards the respective function of the four truths (kiccañāṇa); and (iii) the knowledge that the respective function of each truth has been accomplished (katañāṇa).

90. Each truth consists of three aspects. Thus four truths consist of twelve modes.

91. The reference is to the fruit of arahantship (arahanttaphala)

92. Dhammacakkhu signifies any of the lower three paths: sotāpatti, sakadāgāmi, and anāgāmi. Kondañña attained the first stage of sainthood (sotāpatti). The other bhikkhus attained sotāpatti later.

93. Yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodha-dhammaṃ.

94. Celestial beings of Deva and Brahmā planes.

95. Skt. karma.

96. Mahāvagga, p. 13; Saṃyutta Nikāya pt. iii, p. 66.

97. A permanent unchanging entity, created by a God or emanating from a paramātma (divine essence).

98. The so-called being is composed of these five aggregates. Outside these five there is no being. If one removes the aggregates, nothing remains. A soul abides neither in any one group or aggregate nor in all of them nor outside them.

99. The Buddha makes the same assertion as above in connection with each of the remaining four component parts of the so-called being. The Buddha raises similar queries with regard to each of the other constituents of being. The translation is abridged here.

100. With craving (taṇhā) one erroneously thinks, "This is mine." With pride (māna) one thinks, "This am I." With false view one thinks, "This is my soul." These are the three misconceptions (maññanā).

101. That is, they all attained arahantship.

102. This event took place on the fifth day after the delivery of the first sermon when all the five bhikkhus had attained arahantship.

103. By pabbajjā, lit., "going forth" or "renunciation," is meant the mere admission into the holy order by seeking refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma, and the Sangha.

104. In the early days of the order the higher ordination—upasampadā —lit., "replete with a higher morality," was granted with these words. See Ch. 14

105. Upāsaka (m) upāsikā (f) lit., "one who closely associates with the Triple Gem." These two terms are applied to male and female lay followers of the Buddha. One becomes an upāsaka or upāsikā immediately after taking the three refuges, viz:

Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi—I take refuge in the Buddha
Dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi—I take refuge in the Dhamma
Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi—I take refuge in the Sangha.

This is the threefold formula (tevācika).

106. Mahāvagga, pp.19-20.

107. Note the reference to gods (devas).

108. The Pali term brahmacariya has no connection whatever with a god or Brahmā. It is used in the sense of noble or holy.

109. Samussayatha saddhammaṃ—desayantā isiddhajaṃ
Katakattabbakammantā—paratthaṃ paipajjatha.

110. Seeking oneself. This phrase is very significant. Attānaṃ is the accusative of atta which means self. Here the Buddha was not referring to any soul or spirit latent in man as some scholars attempt to show. How could the Buddha affirm the existence of a soul when he had clearly denied its existence in his second discourse? The Buddha has used this phrase exactly in the sense of "seek yourself" or "look within."

111. Dhammacakkhu—This refers to any of the three lower paths, sotāpatti, sakadāgāmi , and anāgāmi.

112. YamakaPāṭihāriya, often translated as "the twin miracle" is a psychic phenomenon which only a Buddha could perform. By his psychic powers he makes fire and water issue from the pores of the body simultaneously. The Paisambhidāmagga commentary states that by fire and water are meant red and blue rays.

113. He saluted him for the first time when he saw the infant prince's feet rest on the head of the ascetic Asita whom he wanted the child to revere. His second salutation took place at the ploughing festival when he saw the infant prince seated cross-legged on the couch, absorbed in meditation.

114. See Jātaka Vol. vi, p. 479, No. 547. Dhammapadahakathā, vol. iii, pp. 163-164. This interesting story, which is the longest in the Jātaka commentary, illustrates his unrivalled generosity.

115. See Dhammapadahakathā, vol, iii, p. 164, Buddhist Legends, vol. 3, p. 3.

116. Aṅguttara Nikāya commentary states: "Only four disciples of the Buddha had great supernormal powers: Others could recall 100,000 kalpas, not beyond that; but those four could recall incalculable eras. In our Teacher's order the two great disciples and the elder Bakkula and Bhadda Kaccāna, just these four, had this power." Gradual Sayings, Vol. 1, p. 22.

117. pp. 584-599. Here she relates her association with the Bodhisatta when he met the Buddha Dīpaṅkara and resolved to become a Buddha.

118. Lit., bound or seized (la) by a fetter (rāhu)

119. See Buddhist Legends, part 1, p. 219.

120. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 61. See The Blessing, p. 173.

121. Saṃyutta Nikāya, ii, pp. 244-253, Kindred Sayings, ii, pp. 164-168.

122. Sutta Nipāta, Rāhula Sutta. See Chalmers, Buddha's Teachings, p. 81.

123. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 62. See The Blessing, p. 182.

124. See Anattalakkhaṇa Sutta, Ch. 6.

125. See note 88.

126. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 147.

127. vv. 297, 298. Psalms of the Brethren, p. 183.

128. Psalms of the Brethren, p. 127 vs. 157, 158.

129. Jātaka, No. 456, Jātaka Translation, vol. iv. p. 61

130. Such as bodily relics of the Buddha.

131. This oldest historic sacred tree is still to be seen at modern Sahet Mahet (Sāvatthī) in India.

132. Psalms of the Brethren, p. 354. Theragāthā vs. 1424.

133. Aṅguttara Nikāya, Vol. i, p. 24. Gradual Sayings, part I. p. 19

134. Parinibbāna Sutta (DN 16)

135. Buddhist Legends, vol. iii, p. 160.

136. Psalms of the Brethren, p. 353. Theragāthā, v. 1020. Dhp v. 147.

137. Vinaya texts, part iii, p. 320. Aṅguttara Nikāya, Part iv, 274.

138. Some of these rules will not be intelligible to the lay readers as they pertain to Vinaya Discipline.

139. The higher ordination.

140. The full moon and new moon days when bhikkhus assemble to recite their Fundamental Rules.

141. The formal termination of the rainy season.

142. A form of disciplinary action.

143. See Gradual Sayings, iv, p. 184.

144. See Gradual Sayings, iv, p, 185.

145. Vinaya texts part III, pp. 329-330. See Gradual Sayings, iv, pp. 186, 187.

146. Analytical knowledge with regard to the meaning (attha), texts (dhamma) etymology (nirutti), and the understanding of these three (paṭibhāṇa).

147. Saṃutta Nikāya, Part 1, p. 272

148. Saṃyutta Nikāya, Part 1, p. 273

149. See Gradual Sayings, vol. iv, pp. 264-265

150. Gradual Sayings, vol. ii, pp. 77-78. Aṅguttara Nikāya, vol. ii, pp. 67-68.

151. Gradual Sayings, vol. iv, pp. 56-58. Aṅguttara Nikāya, vol. iv, pp. 92-93.

152. See Ānanda Bodhi Tree.

153. Majjhima Nikāya iii, 262; Further Dialogues of the Buddha, vol. ii, pp. 302-305.

154. Saṃyutta Nikāya, Part i, p. 80.

155. Kesa-kalyāṇa, maṃsa-kalyāṇa, ahi-kalyāṇa, chavi-kalyāṇa and vaya-kalyāṇa.

156. Here fire signifies slandering.

157. Usually the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 23rd of the lunar month are regarded as the uposatha or holy days when lay followers observe the following eight precepts (aṭhasīla): abstinence from 1) killing, 2) stealing, 3) incelibacy, 4) lying, 5) liquor, 6) eating food after midday, 7) dancing, singing, music, unseemly shows, using garlands, perfumes, unguents, or ornaments, and 8) using high and luxurious seats.

Though, as a rule, they are sometimes observed on uposatha days, there is no objection to practising them on any convenient day—the object being to control deeds, words, and five senses.

158. Gradual Sayings, iv. pp. 178-179.

159. Gradual Sayings, iv. pp. 177-178.

160. Sāsana (dispensation) is the Pali term applied to the whole Buddhist church.

161. This story is found in Vin. Mahavagga 8, 1. (Ed.)

162. See this account in the text.

163. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 55.

164. Sutta Nipāta, Pabbajjā Sutta.

165. No. 544.

166. See note 111.

167. The Pali ārāma means a mere park. There were no buildings when the Buddha accepted this generous gift. At present the term ārāma is used in the sense of a monastery with necessary buildings for monks.

168. Saṃyutta Nikāya. 1.64: Kindred Sayings, 1, p. 94.

169. An enraged warrior prince, though young, may ruthlessly cause harm to others. The bite of even a small snake may prove fatal. A little fire may produce a conflagration. Even a young monk may be a saint or a Dhamma scholar.

170. Majjhima Nikāya ii, No. 120

171. See Mahā Supina Jātaka. Jātaka Translation—Book 1, pp. 188-192 No. 77.

172. Saṃyutta Nikāya 1, 68, Kindred Sayings, i, p. 94.

173. Kindred Sayings, part 1, pp. 104-106.

174. Kindred Sayings, part 1. pp. 109, 110. Dhp v. 201.

175. Ibid. p. 110

176. Kindred Sayings, part 1, p. 111. Saṃyutta Nikāya, part 1, p.86.

177. See Kindred Sayings, part I, p. 122

178. Majjhima Nikāya, Nos. 89 and 90.

179. See also Chapt. 9.

180. See p. 113.

181. Abhidhamma ("higher doctrine") deals with Buddhist philosophy. See Chapter 15.

182. The three daughters of Māra.

183. Buddhist Legends, part i, p. 274.

184. Dhp vv. 320, 321, 322.

185. See Buddhist Legends, vol. 1, p. 176.

186. Dhammapadahakathā, Kosambaka Vatthu.

187. Sutta Nipāta, p. 12,

188. Vinaya Piṭaka, Suttavibhaṅga (Pārājikā) pp. 1-11. Miss I. B. Horner, Book of the Discipline, Part 1, pp.1-23.

189. The Buddha was referring to Venerable Ānanda.

190. Sutta Nipāta, Āḷavaka Sutta, p. 31, Chalmers, Teachings of the Buddha, p. 45.

191. See Kindred Sayings, part 1, pp. 276-277.

192. Psalms of the Brethren, pp. 318-325. Also see Aṅgulimāla Sutta (MN 86).

193. Paritta = Protective discourse.

194. Yato' haṃ bhaginī ariyāya jātiyā jāto n'ābhijānāmi sañcicca pānna jivitā voropetā. Tena saccena sotthi te hotu, sotthi gabbhassā 'ti.

195. Psalms of the Brethren, p. 328.

196. Buddhacakkhu constitutes the knowledge of the one's inclinations (āsaya) and the innate tendencies (āsayānusaya-ñāṇa) and the knowledge of the dullness and keenness of faculties such as confidence, mindfulness, concentration, energy and wisdom (indriyaparopariyattana-ñāṇa)

197. Satapañcasataka, v. 78.

198. Prof. Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha, vol ii, p. 91.

199. Peta: "hungry ghost." See Moggallan's discussion.

200. Iti'pi so bhagavā arahaṃ, sammā sambuddho, vijjācaraṇasampanno, sugato, lokavidū, anuttaro purisadammasārathi, satthā deva-manussānaṃ, buddho, bhagavā'ti.

201. Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo, sandiṭṭhiko, akāliko, ehipassiko, opanayiko, paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī'ti.

202. Supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujupaipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyapaipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcipaipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni ahapurisapuggalā, esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, āhuneyyo, pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo, añjalikaraṇīyo, anuttaraṃ, puññakkhettaṃ lokassā'ti.

203. Later AmbaPali entered the order and attained arahantship.

204. Anantaraṃ abāhiraṃ karitvā: These two terms refer to both individuals and teachings. "This much of my doctrine will I not teach others"— such a thought means limiting the Dhamma to an inner circle. "This much of my doctrine will I teach others"— such a thought means barring the Dhamma to others. "To this person I shall teach"— by such a thought a limitation is made to an inner circle. "To this person I shall not teach"— such a thought implies individual discrimination. The Buddha makes no such distinctions both with regard to his teaching or his disciples. The Buddha had nothing esoteric in his teachings. Nor had he an inner circle or outer circle amongst his disciples.

205. Vedhamissakena.

206. Referring to the bliss of arahantship (phalasamāpatti).

207. Havens.

208. Attadīpa viharatha attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā; dhammadīpā viharatha , dhammasaraṇā, anaññasaraṇā.

209. These are the four kinds of Satipaṭṭhānas (foundations of mindfulness). Here the term dhamma is used in a different sense and it cannot adequately be rendered by one English word as it refers to both mental and physical objects. See Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya No. 10 (also included below on Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta).

210. The four iddhipādas are will (chanda), effort (viriya), thought (citta), and investigation or wisdom (vīmaṃsā)

211. Here the term kappa means the normal life-term which was about 100 years. Kappāvasesa means an extra fraction of a kappa—i.e., about 120 or so.

212. These are the thirty-seven constituents of enlightenment (bodhipakkhiya-dhamma)

213. Vayadhammā saṅkhārā, appamādena sampādetha.

214. Paripakko vayo mayhaṃ parittaṃ mama jīvitaṃ.

Pahāya vo gamissāmi kataṃ me saraṇamattano
Appamattā satimanto susīlā hotha bhikkhavo
Susamāhita saṅkappā sacittamanurakkhatha
Yo imasmiṃ dhammavinaye appamatto vihessati
Pahāya jātisaṃsāraṃ dukkhassantaṃ karissati.

215. According to the commentary it is flesh of a boar neither too young nor too old, but not killed for his sake (pavattamaṃsa). Some say it is a kind of mushroom. It is also believed to be a special kind of delicious dish by that name, or a nutritious chemical food. See Questions of Milinda, Vol. 1, p. 244 and Dialogues of the Buddha part 2 p. 136 n. 1

216. According to the commentary the Buddha chose Kusinārā to pass away for three reasons: first, to preach the Mahāsudassana Sutta in order to inspire people to be more virtuous; second, to convert Subhadda, his last disciple, who could not have been converted by any other but himself; and third, to enable Dona, a brahmin, to distribute his relics peacefully amongst his followers.

217. A little more than six miles.

218. Lumbinī on the Indian borders of Nepal.

219. Buddha Gayā, about eight miles from the Gayā station.

220. Saraṇath.

221. Kusinārā—modern Kasiā—about thirty-two miles from Gorakhpur station.

222. This Subhadda should be distinguished from another Subhadda who entered the order in his old age. It was the latter who remarked that the death of the Buddha was no occasion for sorrow as the bhikkhus were free to do whatever they liked, without being bound by the injunctions of the Master. This remark of Subhadda prompted Venerable Kassapa to take immediate steps to hold a convocation of the Dhamma and the Vinaya.

223. They all flourished in the time of the Buddha.

224. The four samaṇas refer to the sotāpanna (stream-winner), the sakadāgāmi (once-returner), anāgāmi (non-returner), and arahant, the worthy one, who is the perfect saint.

225. Suññā parappavādā samaṇehi aññehi. Ime ca Subhadda bhikkhū sammā vihareyyuṃ asuñño loko arahantehi assā'ti.

226. Pabbajjā (renunciation). This refers to the ordination as a novice, which is done by donning the yellow robe after having shaved hair and beard and taking the three refuges and the ten precepts. The novice is called a sāmaṇera. He has cut himself off from the world and its ways. Henceforth by him even his parents are addressed "lay-disciples."

227. Upasampadā: This refers to the higher ordination, which is bestowed only after the completion of the 20th year of life. He who receives it is a full member of the order and is called a bhikkhu.

228. A probation is not demanded of the Buddhist aspirant to ordination.

229. Yo ca kho mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto so 'vo mamaccayena satthā.

230. Ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, saṅgho, mamaccayena khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samūhantu!

231. The reference was to the Venerable Ānanda, who encouraged by those words, attained arahantship later.

232. The death of the Buddha occurred in 543 BCE on a Vesak full-moon day.

233. See Mahāvaṃsa translation, pp. 14-50.

234. Ibid. pp. 19-50.

235. A hamlet in the interior of Sri Lanka, about twenty-four miles from Kandy. This sacred rock temple is still a place of pilgrimage to the Buddhists of Sri Lanka. Buddhaghosuppatti, a biography of the Great Commentator Buddhaghosa, states that the amount of books written on ola leaves when piled up would exceed the height of six elephants.

236. See Legacy of India, Edited by G. T. Garrat, pp, X, XI.

237. Commenting on this sutta, Mrs. Rhys Davids says "Happy would have been the village or the clan on the banks of the Ganges where the people were full of the kindly spirit of fellow-feeling and the noble spirit of justice, which breathe through these naive and simple sayings." See Dialogues of the Buddha part 111. p. 168.

238. See The Manual of Abhidhamma by the author. A new edition is published with commentary in A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Bhikkhu Bodhi Ed, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy.

239. One of the books, Kathāvatthu (Points of Controversy), is excluded here. Its authorship is attributed to Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa who presided at the Third council in the time of King Asoka.

240. Saṃyutta Nikāya vol. 5, pp. 437-438, Kindred Sayings, part 5, p. 370.

241. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 22

242. Webster's Dictionary

243. William Durrant, The History of Philosophy, p. 2.

244. Webb, History of Philosophy, p. 2.

245. "A philosophy in the sense of an epistemological system which furnishes a complete reply to the question of the what, of the what is life?—this it is not." (Dr. Dahlke, Buddhism and Its Place in the Mental Life of Mankind, p. 25.)

246. Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 1.

247. An ordinary adherent may be genuine enough as a follower, but he is not a sharer by realisation of the Buddha-Dhamma.

248. The bracketed explanatory parts of the foregoing translation are in accordance with the interpretations of the commentary and sub-commentary. The Pali text of this important passage is as follows: "Etha tumhe Kālāmā. Mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piṭakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena, mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samaṇo no garū ti."

249. Aṅguttara Nikāya vol. i, p. 189; Kindred Sayings, part i, pp. 171, 172.

250. Travel Diary of a Philosopher.

251. See Buddhist Legends, vol. 3. pp. 249, 250.

252. Saṃyutta Nikāya vol. 3. p. 129.

253. Comp. "Prayer is an activity in which I frankly confess I am not an adept." Canon B. H. Streeter in Modern Churchman —Sept. 1924, p.347.

"I do not understand how men continue to pray unless they are convinced there is a listening ear." (Rev. C. Beard, Reformation, p. 419.)

Sir Radhakrishnan states, "Prayers take the character of private communications, selfish bargaining with God. It seeks for objects of earthly ambitions and inflames the sense of self. Meditation on the other hand is self-change."

254. See Sri Radhakrishnan, Gautama the Buddha.

255. Webster's Dictionary.

256. Ex-bhikkhu Sīlacāra. See Sri Lanka Daily News—Vesak Number May 1939.

257. Dr. Dahlke, in arguing what Buddhism is, writes, "With this, sentence of condemnation is passed upon Buddhism as a religion. Religion, in the ordinary sense as that which points beyond this life to one essentially different, it cannot be." Buddhism and its Place in the Mental Life of Mankind, p. 27.

258. Majjhima Nikāya, Sutta No. 22.

259. Rāhulovāda Sutta (MN 61)

260. See Mettā Sutta below.

261. Sutta Nipāta

262. Aṅguttara Nikāya Part 1, p. 286.

263. p. 67

264. Parinibbāna Sutta; see Chapter XIV above.

265. Kindred Sayings, part 1, pp. 7, 8.

266. Saṃyutta Nikāya, vol. ii, p. 32; Kindred Sayings, part ii, p. 27.

267. D II 100; S V 153.

268. Part 1, p. 261.

269. Cūḷa Māluṅkya Sutta (MN 63).

270. See Udāna, vi, p. 4; Woodward, Some Sayings of the Buddha, pp. 287, 288.

271. See footnote 112.

272. Sutta Nipāta—Vasala Sutta.

273. ibid, p. 115.

274. Kindred Sayings, part I, p. 111. See p. 202.

275. Psalms of the Sisters, p. 82.

276. See Kindred Sayings, Part i. p. 162.

277. See Visākhā.

278. Kindred Sayings, 5 Part I, p. 270

279. Jātaka Translation v. p. 110, No. 354.

280. Saṃyutta Nikāya, I, p. 62. See Kindred Sayings, part I p. 86.

281. Hence there is no justification for the statement that Buddhism is a natural outgrowth of Hinduism, although it has to be admitted that there exist some fundamental doctrines common to both and that is because those doctrines are in accordance with eternal truth or Dhamma.

282. See chapters 33, 34.

283. Skt. karma

284. See Chapter 23.

285. The Stream of Life, p. 15.

286. Of Shakespeare, Col. Ingersol writes: "Neither of his parents could read or write. He grew up in a small and ignorant village."

287. "Human inequality springs from two sources, nature and nurture." J.B.S. Haldane, The Inequality of Mankind. p. 23.

288. Kammassakā mānava sattā, kammadāyādā, kammayoni, kamma-bandhu, kammapaṭisaraṇā, kammaṃ satte vibhajati yadīdaṃ hīnappaṇītatāyā'ti. (CullaKammavibhaṅga Sutta [MN 135]) Cf. Venerable Nāgasena's reply to the identical question put by King Milinda.

See also Warren, Buddhism in Translation, p. 214.

289. With respect to this similarity of action and reaction the following note by Dr. Grimm will perhaps be of interest to the readers:

"It is not difficult in all these cases also to show the law of affinity as the regulator of the grasping of a new germ that occurs at death. Whosoever, devoid of compassion, can kill men or, animals, carries deep within himself the inclination to shorten life. He finds satisfaction or even pleasure in the short-livedness of other creatures. Short-lived germs have therefore some affinity which makes itself known after his death in the grasping of another germ which then takes place to his own detriment. Even so, germs bearing within themselves the power of developing into a deformed body have an affinity for one who finds pleasure in ill-treating and disfiguring others.

"An angry person begets within himself an affinity for ugly bodies and their respective germs, since it is the characteristic mark of anger to disfigure the face.

"Whoever is jealous, niggardly, haughty, carries within himself the tendency to grudge everything to others and to despise them. Accordingly germs that are destined to develop in poor, outward circumstances, possess affinity for him.

"It is, of course, only a consequence of the above, that a change of sex may also ensue.

"Thus it is related in the Sakkapañha Sutta (DN 21) that Gopikā, a daughter of the Sākya house, was reborn after her death as Gopaka Devaputta, because the female mind has become repulsive to her, and she had formed a male mind within herself." The Doctrine of the Buddha, p. 191.

290. P. 65; The Expositor, i. 87.

291. See Compendium of Philosophy, p. 191; and A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Ed.

292. Aṅguttara Nikāya, i, 173; Gradual Sayings, i. 157.

293. See Abhidhammāvatāra, p. 54; Mrs. Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 119.

294. See Gradual Sayings, part 2, p. 90.

295. Aṅguttara Nikāya iii, p. 415, The Expositor, part I, 117; Atthasālinī, p. 88.

296. Quoted below in the Ratana Sutta, See Ratana Sutta.

297. See Poussin, The Way to Nirvana, p. 68.

298. Atthasālini p. 68. The Expositor, part I, p. 91.

299. See Compendium of Philosophy — Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha; A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Ed., Ch 1.

300. 20 + 5 + 4 = 29

301. Saṃyutta Nikātya Vol. 1, p. 227; Kindred Sayings, part 1, p. 293.

302. Vol. ii, p. 602. See Warren, Buddhism in Translation , p. 248 The Path of Purity, iii, p 728.

Kammassa kārako natthi—vipākassa ca vedako
Suddhadhammā pavattanti—evetaṃ sammādassanaṃ.

303. Principles of Psychology, p. 216.

304. See Visuddhimagga, ch XVII.

305. According to Buddhist philosophy there is no moment when we do not ordinarily experience a particular kind of consciousness, hanging on to some object—whether physical or mental. The time limit of such consciousness is termed one thought-moment. Each thought-moment is followed by another. The rapidity of the succession of such thought-moments is hardly conceivable by the ken of human knowledge. It pleases the commentators to say that during the time occupied by a flash of lightning billions and billions of thought-moments may arise.

306. Buddhist Legends, (Dhammapadahakathā), pt. 2, p. 262.

307. Buddhist Legends, p. 282.

308. Ibid., pt. i. p. 278.

309. According to some books he actually killed them.

310. Literally, 'because done.'

311. "In plants there is no transmission of stimuli by nerves. Nerves are unknown to them as nerve-centres." Dr. Karl V. Frisch—You and Life. p. 125.

312. The Pali text runs as follows:

"N'atthi dinnaṃ, natthi itthaṃ, n'atthi hutaṃ, n'atthi sukaadukkaānaṃ kammānaṃ phalam vipāko, n'atthi ayaṃ loko, n'atthi paraloko, n'atthi mātā, n'atthi pitā, n'atthi sattā opapātikā, n'atthi loke samaṇa-brāhmaṇā sammaggattā sammāpaipannā ye imañ'ca lokaṃ parañ ca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedenti. See Dhammasaṅgaṇī, p. 233. The Expositor, pt. ii. 493, and Buddhist Psychology, p. 355.

313. According to the Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha there are five rūpa jhānas, but the Visuddhimagga mentions four jhānas. There is no great difference between the two interpretations. In the former the jhānas are divided into five according to the five constituents. In the latter the second jhāna consists of the final three constituents without the first two.

314. For details, see A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Ed.

315. Aṅguttara Nikāya, part i. 249. See Warren, Buddhism in Translation, p. 218.

316. H. G. Wells,Outlineof History.

317. The reference here is to an arahant who is not subject to any future sorrow.

318. Aṅguttara Nikāya pt. i. p. 249—See Warren, Buddhism in Translation, p. 227.

319. Saṃyutta Nikāya, pt. i. p. 91. See Warren, Buddhism in Translation, p. 296, and Grimm, The Doctrine of the Buddha, p. 248.

320. "There is no reason to suppose that the world had a beginning at all. The idea that things must have a beginning is due to the poverty of our imagination." Bertrand Russell, Why I am not a Christian.

321. See The World as Will and Idea.

322. See his essay on "A Plea for Atheism, Humanity's Gain from Unbelief."

323. Isaiah, XXV, 7

324. "A strict demonstration of the existence of God is utterly impossible. Almost all the proofs that have been offered assume in the very premises the conclusion to be proved." Rev. W. Kirkus in Orthodoxy, Scripture, and Reason, p. 34.

"We have got to recognise that evil falls within a universe for which God is responsible. We cannot absolve God for permitting the existence of sin and pain."—Canon. C. E. Raven, The Grounds of Christian Assumption.

325. Cūla Mālunkya Sutta (MN 63).

326. Mahātaṇhāsamkhaya Sutta (MN 38). Although wick and oil may be present, yet an external fire should be introduced to produce a flame.

327. See F. L Woodward, Some Sayings of the Buddha, p. 40.

328. Anamataggo' yaṃ bhikkhave saṃsāro, pubbākoi na paññāyati avijjānīvaraṇānaṃ sattānaṃ taṇhāsaṃyojanānaṃ sandhāvataṃ.

"Incalculable is the beginning, brethren, of this faring on. The earliest point is not revealed of the running on, the faring, of beings cloaked in ignorance, tied to craving." F. L. Woodward—Kindred Sayings, part iii. p.118.

"Inconceivable is the beginning of this saṃsāra, not to be discovered a first beginning of beings, who, obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths."—Nyānatiloka Thera.

Saṃsāra, literally, means recurrent wandering. Atthasālinī defines saṃsāra thus:

Khandhānaṃ paipāti dhātu-āyatanāna ca
Abbhocchinnaṃ vattamānā saṃsāro'ti pavuccati.

("Saṃsāra is the unbroken succession of aggregates, elements, and the sense-bases.")

329. Aṅguttara Nikāya i, p. 174. Gradual Sayings, i, p. 158.

330. Majjhima Nikāya ii, p. 222. Sutta No. 101.

331. Majjhima Nikāya, Mahāsaccaka Sutta, No. 36, i. 248.

332. But it must not thereby be assumed that the Buddha originated the idea of rebirth, which had evidently become widespread by his time, though perhaps not yet universally accepted. It is found in the early Upanishads also. (Ed.)

333. Dhp, v. 153.

334. Vinaya Mahā Vagga, p. 10, Saṃyutta Nikāya V p. 421. See The First Discourse of the Buddha.

335. Part i, 111

336. Cp. Mr. J. G. Jennings, The Vedantic Buddhism of the Buddha.

337. The case of Shanti Devi of India is a striking example. See The Bosat, vol. xiii, No. 2. p. 27

338. William W. Atkinson and E. D. Walter, Reincarnation and the Law of Kamma.

339. Psalms of the Brethren (Theragāthā) gives an interesting account of a Brahmin named Vaṅgīsa, "who won favour as a teacher by tapping on skulls with his fingernails and discovering thereby where their former occupants were reborn."

Certain persons at times exhibit different personalities in the course of their particular lives. Prof. James cites some remarkable cases in his Principles of Psychology. See F. W. H. Myers, Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death. The Visuddhimagga mentions an interesting incident of a deva entering into the body of a layman. See The Path of Purity, part i, p. 48.

The writer himself has met persons who were employed as mediums by invisible beings to convey their thoughts and some others who were actually possessed by evil spirits. When in this hypnotic state they speak and do things of which normally they are totally innocent and which they cannot afterwards recall.

340. See Many Mansions and The World Within by Gina Cerminara.

341. It was such experiences that led Sir Walter Scott to a sense of metempsychosis. His biographer Lockhart quotes in his Life of Scott the following entry in Scott's diary for February 17th, 1828.

"I cannot, I am sure, tell if it is worth marking down, that yesterday at dinner time, I was strangely haunted by what I would call the sense of pre-existences, viz., a confused idea that nothing that passed was said for the first time, that the same topics had been discussed and the persons had stated the same opinions on them. The sensation was so strong as to resemble what is called a mirage in the desert and calenture on board ship. Bulwer Lytton describes these mysterious experiences as that strange kind of inner and spiritual memory which often recalls to us places and persons we have never seen before, and which Platonists would resolve to be the unquenched and struggling consciousness of a former life." Quoted in H.M. Kitchener, The Theory of' Reincarnation, p. 7.

The writer also has met some persons who remember fragments of their past births and also a distinguished doctor in Europe who hypnotises people and makes them describe some of their past lives

342. See Buddhist Legends, vol. 3, p. 108.

343. Sri Lanka Observer, November 21, 1948.

344. "We have come to look upon the present as the child of the past and as the parent of the future." T. H. Huxley.

345. Addison.

346. Tabbhāvabhāvibhāvākāramatta — Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha.

347. Sutta Nipāta v. 730.

348. "Radiant is this consciousness," (pabhassaraṃ idaṃ cittaṃ) says the Buddha in the Aṅguttara Nikāya vol. 1, p. 10. According to the commentator the Buddha was thus referring to the rebirth-consciousness.

349. In the case of "rootless resultants" (ahetuka-vipāka).

350. In the case of "resultants with roots" (sahetuka-vipāka).

351. Saṃyutta Nikāya, part ii, p. 70; Kindred Sayings, part ii, p. 50.

352. Chambers, Buddha's teachings, vv. 729-730.

353. See Kindred Sayings, part 1, pp. 85, 86.

354. Apa + aya = devoid of happiness.

355. See Kindred Sayings, part ii.. p 170

356. Khuddaka Pātha.

357. Literally, those who have an uplifted or developed mind (mano ussannaṃ etāsaṃ). The Sanskrit equivalent of manussa is manushya which means the sons of Manu. They are so called because they became civilised after Manu the seer.

358. A Chinese Buddhist book (Guide to Buddhahood) states that on each of the four sides of this plane are eight heavens (totalling thirty-two) and a central one where King Sakka dwells.

359. Kassapa Thera.

360. For details and the life-term of various planes see Diagram 6 The Planes of Existence..

361. For details with regard to these "premonitory visions of the place of rebirth" see Dr. W. T. Evans-Wents, The Tibetan Book of the Dead, p. 183.

362. According to Buddhism material qualities are produced in four ways: i) kamma i.e., past moral and immoral actions, ii) utu, i.e., physical change or the tejo (heat) element which includes both heat and cold; iii) citta, i.e., mind and mental properties; iv) āhara i.e., nutriment that exists in food.

363. See "Three Decads".

364. Compare "The sex of the individual is determined at conception by the chromosome makeup of the gametes. Through this, the embryo is endowed with a potentiality of developing towards one sex." Frank Alexander, Psychosomatic Medicine, p. 219.

365. Bhikkhu Sīlacāra.

366. See A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, p. 125 ff.

367. "According to Tibetan works," writes Dr. Evans-Wentz, "there is an intermediate state where beings remain for one, two, three, five, six, or seven weeks, until the forty-ninth day." This view is contrary to the teachings of Buddhism. The Tibetan Book of the Dead, pp. XLII-XLIII, 58, 160-165

368. Milinda's Questions, part 1, pp. 127-128.

369. "There are about 1,000,000 planetary systems in the Milky Way in which life may exist." See Fred Hoyle, The Nature of the Universe, pp. 87-89.

370. Religion and Science, p. 166.

371. Religion and Science, p. 132.

372. Riddle of the Universe, New York, 1901 p. 203-04..

373. William James, Principles of Psychology, p. 351.

374. Watson, Behaviourism, p. 4.

375. Principles of Psychology, p. 215.

376. It pleases the commentators to say that the time duration one thought-moment is even less than the one millionth part of the time occupied by a flash of lightning.

377. Compendium of Philosophy—, S.Z. Aung & C.A.F. Rhys Davids, London 1910, p. xii.

378. See Warren, Buddhism in Translation, pp. 234, 235.

379. Dr. Ānanda Coomarasvami, Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism. p. 106.

380. See The Questions of Milinda, part I. p. 111, and Dr. Dahlke, Buddhism and Science, p. 64.

381. See "Anattā and Moral Responsibility" by Mr. A. D. Jayasundara, Mahabodhi Journal, vol. 41, p. 93.

382. Wife of King Kosala who lived in the time of the Buddha.

383. Kukuruvatika Sutta (MN 57).

384. See The Book of The Gradual Sayings I, pp. 31-34.

385. Pythagoras remembered having fought as Euphorbus in the Trojan War. Empedocles had been in past births a boy, a girl, a bird, and a scaly fish in the ocean. (Frag. 117, Diels.)

386. i. 127

387. Barry Cornwall, An Anthology of Modern Verse, chosen by A. Methuen, London, 1921.

388. Warren, Buddhism in Translations, p. 6.

389. Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha. See Compendium of Philosophy, p. 168.

390. Khayamattaṃ' eva na ānaṃ ti vattabbaṃ." Abhidhammāvatāra.

391. Quoted from Bhikkhu Sīlacāra booklet, The Four Noble Truths.

392. According to the commentary these four terms are used as synonyms.

Ajāta means that it has not sprung up on account of causes or conditions (hetupaccaya). Abhūta (lit., not become) means that it has not arisen. As it has not sprung up from a cause and has not come into being, it is not made (akata) by any means. Becoming and arising are the characteristics of conditioned things such as mind and matter, but Nibbāna, being not subject to those conditions, is non-conditioned (asaṅkhata). See Woodward, Verses of Uplift, p. 98, As It Was Said, p. 142.

393. Woodward, As It Was Said, p. 142

394. Sa = with, upādi = aggregates—mind and body, sesa = remaining. The aggregates are called upādi because they are firmly grasped by craving and ignorance.

395. Since he will not be reborn.

396. Woodward, As It Was Said, p. 144.

397. See Gradual Sayings, i, p. 135.

398. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 57 The Blessing, No. 4, pp. 129-132.

399. Majjhima Nikāya, No. 57.

400. Saṃyutta Nikāya, i, p. 62.

401. "Verily this (nibbāna) is to be attained (or realised) by means of the four paths of sainthood, and is not to be produced." —Visuddhimagga .

402. Kindred Sayings, pt. i, p. 23. Yattha āpo ca paṭhavī tejo vāyo na gadhati.

403. See Woodward, Verses of Uplift, pp. 66-67.

404. Questions of King Milinda, pp. 202-204.

405. See Chapter 29.

406. Kindred Sayings, part 1, p. 170.

407. Sutta Nipāta, Pabbajjā Sutta, v. 406.

408. "Stream-winner"—The first stage of sainthood.

409. "Once-returner"—The second stage of sainthood.

410. "Never-returner"—The third stage of sainthood.

411. "The Worthy One"—The final stage of sainthood.

412. The rules that a bhikkhu is expected to observe.

413. Excluding the seven modes of settling disputes (adhikaraṇasamatha dhamma).

414. Kasiṇa here means whole, all, complete. It is so called because the projected light issuing from the conceptualised image of the kasiṇa object could be extended everywhere without limitation.

415. These ten kinds of corpses were found in ancient cemeteries and charnel places where dead bodies were not buried or cremated and where flesh-eating beasts and birds frequent. Nowadays, these bodies can be viewed in mortuaries. In some Thai monasteries there are burial grounds where decaying bodies can be viewed. Photographs with dead bodies in various stages of decay, etc, are also available in monasteries.

416. Anussati lit., means constant mindfulness.

417. Āhāre paikkūlasaññā, i.e., the feeling of loathsomeness of food in its search, eating, etc.

418. Catudhātuvavatthāna—i.e., the investigation of the four primary elements of extension (paṭhavī), cohesion (āpo), heat (tejo), and motion (vāyo), with regard to their special characteristics.

419. In the case of earth kasiṇa one makes a circle of about one span and four fingers in diameter and, covering it with dawn-coloured clay, smoothes it well. If there be not enough clay of the dawn colour, he may introduce some other kind of clay beneath. This concentrative circle is known as kasiṇa-maṇḍala.

The remaining kasiṇas should be similarly understood. Details are given in the Visuddhimagga . It may be mentioned that light and space kasiṇas are not found in the text. When they are excluded there are thirty-eight subjects.

420. Included below, See Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.

421. For the complete text, see See Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.

422. The third stage of the path of purity

423. Kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhi, the fourth stage of the path of purity.

424. Maggāmaggañāṇadassanavisuddhi, the fifth stage of the path of purity.

425. These nine kinds of insight—namely, udaya-, vaya-, bhaṅga-, bhaya-, ādīnava-, idā-, muñcitukamyatā-, patisaṅkhā-, and upekkhā-ñāṇa—are collectively termed paṭipadāñāṇadassanavisuddhi, purity of vision as regards knowledge of progress, and are the sixth stage of the path of purity.

426. Insight found in this supramundane path consciousness is known as mānadassanavisuddhi—purity of vision which is knowledge, the seventh member of the path of purity.

427. Dr. Dahlke.

428. See Dhammasaṅgaṇī Translation, p. 259.

429. Section 1005.

430. Literally, 'attainment to cessation'. See Bodhi, Ed., A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, pp. 178, 363 ff.

431. The Path of Purity, part ii, p. 872.

432. Psalms of the Brethren. p. 346.

433. See Woodward, Verses of Uplift, p. 114.

434. Evidently the writer is referring to the state of an arahant after death.

435. Of life in the round of existence, i.e., an arahant.

436. One gives up sorrow by attaining anāgāmi, the third stage of sainthood. It is at this stage one eradicates completely attachment to sense-desires and ill will or aversion.

437. Sabbadhi, the five aggregates etc.

438. There are four kinds of gaṇhas (ties): i. covetousness (abhijjhā), ii. ill will (vyāpāda), iii. indulgence in (wrongful) rites and ceremonies (sīlabbataparāmāsa), and iv. adherence to one's preconceptions as truth (idaṃ saccābhinivesa).

439. This verse refers to the ethical state of an arahant. Heat is both physical and mental. An arahant experiences bodily heat as long as he is alive, but is not thereby worried. Mental heat of passions he experiences not.

440. Arahants wander whithersoever they like without any attachment to any particular place as they are free from the conception of "I" and "mine.

441. There are two kinds of accumulation—namely, kammic activities and the four necessaries of life. The former tend to prolong life in saṃsāra and the latter, though essential, may prove an obstacle to spiritual progress.

442. To get rid of the desire for food.

443. Nibbāna is deliverance from suffering (vimokkha). It is called void because it is void of lust, hatred and ignorance, not because it is nothingness or annihilation. Nibbāna is a positive supramundane state which cannot be expressed in mundane words. It is signless because it is free from the signs of lust etc.. Arahants experience Nibbānic bliss while alive. It is not correct to say that arahants exist after death, or do not exist after death, for Nibbāna is neither eternalism nor nihilism. In Nibbāna nothing is eternalised nor is anything, except passions, annihilated. arahants experience Nibbānic bliss by attaining to the fruit of arahantship in this life itself.

444. By indakhīla is meant either a column as firm and high as that of Sakka's, or the chief column that stands at the entrance to a city.

Commentators state that these indakhīlas are firm posts which are erected either inside or outside the city as an embellishment. Usually they are made of bricks or of durable wood and are octagonal in shape. Half of the post is embedded in the earth, hence the metaphor as firm and steady as an indakhīla.

445. Tādi is one who has neither attachment to desirable objects nor aversion to undesirable objects. Nor does he cling to anything. Amidst the eight worldly conditions—gain and loss, fame and infamy, blame and praise, happiness and pain—an arahant remains unperturbed, manifesting neither attachment nor aversion, neither elation nor depression.

446. As they are not subject to birth and death.

447. From all defilements.

448. Since his mind is absolutely pure.

449. The pun in the original Pali is lost in the translation.

450. Assaddho—lit., unfaithful. He does not merely accept from other sources because he himself knows from personal experience.

451. Akata, Nibbāna. It is so called because it is not created by anyone. Akataññū can also be interpreted as ungrateful.

452. The links of existence and rebirth. Sandhicchedo also means a house-breaker that is a burglar.

453. Hata + avakāso, he who has destroyed the opportunity.

454. Vanta + āso, he who eats vomit is another meaning.

455. By means of the four paths of sainthood. Gross forms of desire are eradicated at the first three stages, the subtle forms at the last stage.

456. Ninna and thala, lit., low-lying and elevated grounds.

457. The passionless arahants rejoice in secluded forests which have no attraction for worldlings.

458. Free from the disease of passions

459. Kiñcana, such as lust, hatred, and delusion which are hindrances to spiritual progress.

460. Pāraṃ—the six internal, personal sense-fields.

461. Apāraṃ—the six external sense-fields.

462. Not grasping anything as "me" and "mine."

463. He who practises concentration (samatha) and insight (vipassanā).

464. Āsīnaṃ—living alone in the forest

465. By realising the four truths and eradicating the fetters

466. That is, Nibbāna.

467. Who has understood the four noble truths.

468. Devoted to religious austerity.

469. Because he, having destroyed the passions would be reborn no more.

470. The burden of the aggregates.

471. Who knows the way to the woeful states, to the blissful states, and to Nibbāna.

472. Literally, towards beings.

473. Those who are attached to the aggregates.

474. Lust, hatred, delusion, pride and false views.

475. Undisturbed by defilements.

476. That is, attachment to sense-desires.

477. Arati, dislike for forest life (commentary).

478. Upadhi. There are four kinds of upadhi—namely, the aggregates (khandha), the passions (kilesa), volitional activities (abhisaṅkhārā), and sense-desires (kāma).

479. That is, the world of aggregates.

480. Usabhaṃ, fearless as a bull.

481. Mahesiṃ, seeker of higher morality, concentration, and wisdom.

482. Vijitāvinaṃ, the conqueror of passions.

483. Nahātakaṃ, he who has washed away all impurities.

484. Buddhaṃ, he who has understood the four noble truths.

485. Sagga, the six heavenly realms, the sixteen rūpa realms, and the four arūpa realms.

486. Apāya the four woeful states.

487. Jātikkhayaṃ, i.e., arahantship.

488. Abhiññāvosito, i.e., reached the culmination by comprehending that which should be comprehended, by discarding that which should be discarded, by realising that which should be realised, and by developing that which should be developed (commentary).

489. Sabbavositavosanaṃ, i.e., having lived the holy life which culminates in wisdom pertaining to the path of arahantship, the end of all passions.

490. Literally, a hearer.

491. Literally, a worthy or passionless one.

492. Prof. Rhys Davids writes in his Buddhist Birth Stories (p. xxxiv): "There is a religious romance called Barlaam and Joasaph, giving the history of an Indian prince who was converted by Barlaam and became a hermit. This history, the reader will be surprised to hear, is taken from the life of the Buddha; and Joasaph is merely the Buddha under another name, the word Joasaph, or, Josaphat, being simply a corruption of the word Bodisat." "Joasaph is in Arabic written also Yudasatf; and this, through a confusion between the Arabic letters Y and B, is for Bodisat". See Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 6, p. 567.

493. Pāramī: "Pāram", beyond, i.e., bodhi or enlightment, "i", to go. Literally, it means that which enables one to go to the further shore. The Pali term pāramītā is also used in the same sense.

494. Vyāgrhi Jātaka, Jātakamālā story No. 1, a Mahāyāna Sanskrit work by Āryasūra.

495. Jātaka Stories, No. 440.

496. "One who to save a limb rich treasure gave
Would sacrifice a limb, his life to save
Yea, wealth, limb, life and all away would fling,
Right and its claims alone remembering."

497. Jātaka Stories, vol. iii, p. 158.

498. Derived from the root "bhikkha," to beg. Bhikkhu, literally, means "one who begs." See p. 503

499. Jātaka Stories, vol. iii. p. 28.

500. Jātaka Stories, vol. iii, p. 130

501. Warren, Buddhism in Translations.

502. Warren, Buddhism in Translations.

503. Warren, Buddhism in Translations.

504. See Chalmers, Buddha's Teaching, p.221.

505. Majjhima Nikāya, Ghaṭīkāra Sutta, No. 81.

506. Dhp, v. 5.

507. Dhp v. 320.

508. See note 494.

509. See Ānanda Bodhi Tree.

510. See Dhp v. 124

511. , v. p. 334

512. Ouspensky, Tertium Organum, p. 8.

513. During the time occupied by a flash of lightning billions and billions of thought-moments may arise.

514. Sir Charles Sherrington, Life's Unfolding, p. 32.

515. Ouspensky, Tertium Organum, p. 125

516. Sri Radhakrishna, Indian Philosophy, Vol. 1. p. 278.

517. "There are about 1,000,000 planetary systems in the Milky Way in which life may exist." See Fred Hoyle, The Nature of the Universe, pp. 87-89.

518. Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p. 201.

519. Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p. 2.

520. Bertrand Russell, Religion and Science, p. 191.

521. Religion and Science, p.221.

522. Tertium Organum, p. 192.