Mindfulness of Breathing
(Anapanasati)

Buddhist texts from the Pali Canon and Commentaries

Book Publication No: 502S


Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV

Part III

Part III

The Pa.tisambhidaamagga

(Path of Analysis)

Section on Respiration-Mindfulness  (Aanaapaanakathaa)

Foreword

The first three sections, I to III, are more or less self-evident. Section I is concerned with describing those general states of the mind which hinder and those which help concentration and their various aspects.

Section II deals with particular faulty ways of behaviour of consciousness which hinder progress while practising respiration-mindfulness.

Section III describes how these faults are to be avoided and analyses the process of attaining full concentration, which is treated at some length. It is rounded off with a stanza describing one who has reached arahatship through this practice. The stanza is followed by a commentary which is made the occasion for allusion to Nibbaana—the object of the whole practice—and for a description of the qualities of the Buddha—confidence in whose omniscience provides the impulse to progress until realization by personal experience is attained.

These three sections constitute a kind of general analytical survey and introduction before embarking on the detailed analysis of the actual practice as set forth in the suttas.

Section IV—the main body of the work—at first appears a laby­rinth, though examination reveals a systematic and coherent construction throughout all its length and repetitions. In order to appreciate this better, one should first of all remember that respiration-mindfulness is one out of the many methods of devel­oping the four foundations of mindfulness (cattaaro sati­pa.t.thaanaa)—“the only way” to attain Nibbaana—and that this develop­ment consists of the constant practice of properly directed mindfulness and clear comprehension (sati-sampaja.t.ta). Also, in particular, the “four tetrads,” as they are set out, describe one who is practising mindfulness now (“he knows, ‘I breathe in long,’” etc.), and who is training for future attainment as yet unachieved (“‘Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself,” etc.). Lastly, the order “concentration, insight, path attainment” is consistently followed and lends architectural unity to the whole.

Bearing these general points in mind, the following construction becomes apparent:

In the first two bases dealing with present knowledge, we have:

  (a)   analysis of the way the object of contemplation (“Breathing in long,” etc.) is known (section 12, pp.64-65);

(b)   sections demonstrating how this contemplation is at the same time the practice of the first foundation of mindfulness (sections 13–14, pp.65);

  (c)   section showing how mindfulness and clear comprehension are simultaneously exercised when concentration has been obtained and insight applied (section 15, pp.66-67):

(d)   concluding sections listing the states that are present during such concentration, at the successive levels of attain­ment (sections 16–26, pp.67-69).

In the remaining fourteen bases dealing with training for the future, the following scheme of construction is adhered to throughout:

   (i)   sections analysing the object of contemplation and its treatment (“‘Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself,” etc.). This parallels (a) above but varies greatly in length and content;

  (ii)   sections showing which foundation of mindfulness is being practised. This is equal to (b) above;

(iii)  sections dealing with the analysis and description of training;

(iv)   sections on mindfulness and clear comprehension (= (c) above);

  (v)   concluding sections as in (d) above.

These last four groups are repeated verbatim throughout in each case, except for the substitution of certain key words where necessary.

In this way each of the sixteen bases is independently brought up to the point of path attainment.

The last six sections, V to X, merely give a brief classification of the stages of knowledge, of attainment, of concentration (V), and insight (VI), and the kinds of knowledge leading up to the path (VII to IX) and fruition (X). These are dealt with in detail in the Visuddhimagga, Chap. XXI, and in the Pa.tisambhidaa Ñaa.nakathaa Sections 5f.; a brief summary is given in Note 95.

The paragraph numbers of the PTS edition are given in brackets for reference to the text. They are, however, inconsistent in the later sections and apt to be confusing.

What follows is an attempt to present the contents of the Aanaapaanakathaa in a form which, while much compressed for the purpose of wieldiness, still preserves intact the development, arrangement, and proportions of the original.

 

The Analysis

Synopsis

1.  (.m1)[1] For one who develops the sixteen-based[2] respiration-mindfulness[3] concentration, more than two hundred kinds of knowledge arise, namely:

     I.   8 kinds of knowledge of obstacles, 8 kinds of knowledge of aids,

    II.   18 kinds of knowledge of imperfections,

   III.   13 kinds of knowledge of purification,

   IV.   32 kinds of knowledge of exercise of mindfulness,

    V.   24 kinds of knowledge through concentration,

   VI.   72 kinds of knowledge through insight,

VII.   8 kinds of knowledge of revulsion,

VIII.   8 kinds of knowledge in conformity with revulsion,

   IX.   8 kinds of knowledge of tranquillization of revulsion,

    X.   21 kinds of knowledge of the bliss of deliverance.

I. The Eight Kinds of Knowledge of Obstacles and the Eight Kinds of Knowledge of Aids         

2. (.m2).

8 Obstacles to Concentration                        8 Aids to Concentration

    (i)  lust,                                               (i)  renunciation,

    (ii) ill will,                                           (ii)  non-ill will,

   (iii)  stiffness-and-torpor,                     (iii)  perception of light,

   (iv)  agitation,                                      (iv)  non-distraction,

   (v)  uncertainty,                                  (v)  defining of states,

   (vi)  ignorance,                                    (vi)  knowledge,

  (vii)  aversion,                                     (vii)  joy,

(viii)  all unprofitable states.                 (viii)  all profitable states.

In these sixteen ways the well-composed mind establishes the unities[4] and is purified of the hindrances.[5]

3.  (.m3). The unities are the above eight aids. The hindrances are the above eight obstacles.

(.m4). (i) Renunciation is among the noble ones’ outlets (from the defilements), and by that renunciation the noble ones are let out.[6] Lust is an obstruction to the outlet, and through being shut in by that lust one does not understand renunciation as the noble one’s outlet.

(ii) to (viii) Same as above for each pair.

But for one whose mind is purified of these hindrances and who develops the sixteen-based respiration-mindfulness concentration, the following eighteen imperfections arise in momentary succession.[7]

II. The Eighteen Kinds of Knowledge of Imperfections

4.  (.m5). The following are obstacles to concentration:

(i)       The internally distracted consciousness of one who follows with mindfulness the beginning, middle, and end of the in-breath[8]

(ii)       The externally distracted consciousness of one who follows with mindfulness the beginning, middle, and end of the out-breath.[9]

(iii)      A state of craving consisting of desire for, and expectation of, in-breath.[10]

(iv)      A state of craving consisting of desire for, and expectation of, out-breath.[11]

(v)      Longing for the obtaining of the out-breath by one wearied by the in-breath.[12]

(vi)      Longing for the obtaining of the in-breath by one wearied by the out-breath.[13]

 

The mindfulness that follows out-breath,
And which follows in-breath, too;
Expecting distraction inwardly,
Loving distraction outwardly;
The longing for out-breath in one
Who is by in-breath much oppressed;

The longing for in-breath in one
Who is by out-breath much oppressed:
These six defects of concentration
On respiration-mindfulness
Are those whereby the mind of one
Who is distracted is not freed;
And they who know not liberation
Perforce must trust in others’ words.

(.m6).

(vii)     Consciousness which wavers in regard to the in-breath when one adverts to the sign.[14]

(viii)    Consciousness which wavers in regard to the sign when one adverts to the in-breath.

(ix)      Consciousness which wavers in regard to the out-breath when one adverts to the sign.

(x)      Consciousness which wavers in regard to the sign when one adverts to the out-breath.

(xi)      Consciousness which wavers in regard to the out-breath when one adverts to the in-breath.

(xii)     Consciousness which wavers in regard to the in-breath when one adverts to the out-breath.

Adverting to the sign, his mind
Distracted is about in-breath;
Adverting to in-breath, his mind,
Distracted is about the sign;

Adverting to the sign, his mind
Distracted is about out-breath;
Adverting to out-breath, his mind
Distracted is about the sign;
Adverting to in-breath, his mind
Distracted is about out-breath;
Adverting to out-breath, his mind
Distracted is about in-breath.

These six defects of concentration
On respiration-mindfulness
Are those whereby the mind of one
Who is distracted is not freed;
And they who know not liberation
Perforce must trust in others’ words.

(.m7).

(xiii)    Consciousness which runs after the past (breaths) and is attacked by distraction.[15]

(xiv)    Consciousness which looks forward to the future (breaths) and is attacked by wavering.[16]

(xv)     Slack consciousness attacked by indolence.

(xvi)    Over-exerted consciousness attacked by agitation.

(xvii)   Consciousness which is attracted and attacked by greed.[17]

(xviii)  Consciousness which is discontented and attacked by ill will.[18]

The consciousness that hunts the past,
That loves the future, that is slack,
Or over-exerted, or attracted,
Or repelled, is not one-pointed.

These six defects of concentration
On respiration-mindfulness
Are those whereby one stained in thought
Knows not the higher consciousness.

(.m8). By reason of each of these eighteen imperfections both body and mind are disturbed, unsettled, and unsteady.

One whose mindfulness of breathing
Is undeveloped and imperfect,
Remains unsettled in his body,
Remains unsettled in his mind,
Remains unsteady in his body,
Remains unsteady in his mind.

One whose mindfulness of breathing
Is both developed and perfected,
Remains quite settled in his body,
Remains quite settled in his mind,
Remains quite steady in his body,
Remains quite steady in his mind.

III. The Thirteen Kinds of Knowledge of Purification

5. (.m9). Consciousness becoming distracted is avoided for the following six reasons:

(i)        By avoiding consciousness which runs after the past (breaths) and is attacked by distraction, (consciousness) is concentrated in one place.[19]

(ii)       By avoiding consciousness which looks forward to the future (breaths) and is attacked by wavering, (consciousness) is fixed (there).

(iii)      By exerting[20] slack consciousness attacked by indolence, one abandons indolence.

(iv)      By restraining[21] over-exerted consciousness attacked by agitation, one abandons agitation.

(v)       By being clearly comprehending[22] about consciousness which is attracted and attacked by greed, one abandons greed.

(vi)      By being clearly comprehending[23] about consciousness which is discontented and attacked by ill will, one abandons ill will.

For these six reasons consciousness becomes purified, cleansed, and arrives at the unities. These are:

(.m10).

(vii)     The unity which is the establishing of relinquishment in giving[24] which is (peculiar) to those resolved on generosity.

(viii)    The unity which is the establishment of the sign of tranquillity which is (peculiar) to those who practise the higher consciousness.[25]

(ix)      The unity which is the establishment of the characteristic of decay which is (peculiar) to those who have insight.[26]

(x)       The unity which is the establishment of cessation which is (peculiar) to the noble persons.[27]

Consciousness having become one-pointed for these four reasons is then:

(xi)      entered into purity of practice,[28]

(xii)     grown strong in equanimity,[29]

(xiii)    gladdened by knowledge.[30]

 

The Beginning, Middle, and End of Contemplation

6. (.m11). Purity of practice is the beginning, strengthening in equanimity is the middle, and gladdening the end, of the following:

the four fine-material jhaanas,[31]
the four immaterial jhaanas,[32]
the eighteen principal insights,[33]
the four paths.[34]

(.m12). There are three characteristics of purity of practice as the beginning:

(a)       The mind is purified of its obstructions.

(b)       Through purification the mind arrives at the central (state of equipoise which is the) sign of tranquillity.[35]

(c)       Because of having arrived at that, consciousness enters into (that state).

Hence, these states are called good in the beginning and endowed with characteristics.

(.m13). There are three characteristics of strengthening in equanimity as the middle:

(d)       The purified mind looks on with equanimity.[36]

(e)       Being arrived at tranquillity, it looks on with equanimity.

(f)       Having established the unities, it looks on with equanimity.

Hence, these states are called good in the middle and endowed with characteristics.

(.m14). There are four characteristics of gladdening as the end:

(g)       Gladdening on account of the non-excess of any of the mental states arisen therein.[37]

(h)       Gladdening on account of the single nature of the faculties.

(i)        Gladdening on account of the sustaining power of the energy which is in conformity therewith.

(j)        Gladdening through cultivation.

Hence, these states are called good in the end and endowed with characteristics.

7. (.m.m11–20). The consciousness which has thus attained the threefold course (xi, xii, and xiii above), and is good in the three ways, and is possessed of the characteristics (a-j), is possessed of mental resolution and of the five faculties.

In addition, in the first fine-material jhaana, it is possessed of (the jhaana factors of) applied thought, sustained thought, rapture, and bliss; and likewise, in the eighteen principal insights and the four paths. In the second fine-material jhaana, it is possessed of rapture and bliss. In the third fine-material jhaana, it is possessed of bliss. In the fourth fine-material jhaana, and in the four immaterial jhaanas, it is possessed of equanimity.

The Simile of the Saw

8. (.m21).

Sign, in-breath, out-breath, are not object
Of a single consciousness;
By one who knows not these three things,
Development is not obtained.

Sign, in-breath, out-breath, are not object
Of a single consciousness;
By one who does know these three things,
Development will be obtained.

(.m22). It is as though a man were to cut with a saw a tree trunk placed on level ground. His mindfulness is established by the teeth of the saw at the point where they come into contact with the tree trunk, without his giving attention to the teeth of the saw as they approach and recede, although he is not unaware of these; and he manifests endeavour, accomplishes the task, and achieves distinction.

As the tree trunk on the level ground, so the sign for the binding (of mindfulness).[38] As the teeth of the saw, so the in- and out-breaths. As the man’s mindfulness is established by the teeth of the saw at the point where they come into contact with the tree trunk, without his giving attention to the teeth of the saw as they approach and recede, although he is not unaware of these, so he manifests endeavour, accomplishes the task, and achieves distinction—so, indeed, the bhikkhu sits, having established his mindfulness at the nose-tip or on the upper lip, without giving attention to the in- and out-breaths as they approach and recede, although he is not unaware of these, and he manifests endeavour, accomplishes the task, and achieves distinction.

(.m23). The body and the mind of one who is energetic become pliable—this is the endeavour. The imperfections of one who is energetic are abandoned and his applied thinking is pacified—this is the task. The fetters of one who is energetic are abandoned and his inherent tendencies are brought to an end—this is the distinction.

The Perfecting of Respiration-mindfulness

9. (.m24).

Whose mindfulness of breathing in
And out is perfect, well developed,
Gradually brought to growth
According as the Buddha taught,
‘Tis he who illuminates the world
Like the full moon freed from cloud.[39]

Commentary on the Foregoing Stanza

10. “Breathing in” is the in-breath, not the out-breath; “out” is the out-breath, not the in-breath. The establishment (foundation) by way of the in-breath is mindfulness; the establishment (foundation) by way of the out-breath is mindfulness. It is established (founded) for him who breathes in; it is established (founded) for him who breathes out.[40]

“Perfect”: it is made perfect in the sense of laying hold (with mindfulness), in the sense of converging (of the mental faculties), in the sense of perfecting.[41]

“Well-developed”: there are four kinds of development, namely:

(i)        on account of the non-excess of any of the mental states arisen therein;

(ii)       on account of the single nature of the faculties;

(iii)      on account of the sustaining power of the energy which is in conformity therewith;

(iv)      on account of cultivation.

For him these four kinds of development are:

(a)       made the vehicle,

(b)       made the basis,

(c)       practised,

(d)       increased,

(e)       well undertaken.

(.m25).

(a)       “Made the vehicle”: whenever he wishes, therein he has mastery, has power, has perfect confidence; these states are bound up with his adverting, wishing, paying attention, mind, thinking.

(b)       “Made the basis”: on whatever basis[42] the mind is fixed, on that mindfulness is well established (founded); on whatever basis mindfulness is well-established (founded), on that the mind is fixed.

(c)       “Practised”: wherever the mind is directed, there mindfulness is diverted to; wherever mindfulness is diverted to, there the mind is directed.

(d)       “Increased”: increased through laying hold, through converging, through perfecting. One who lays hold with mindfulness conquers evil, unprofitable states.

(e)       “Well undertaken”: there are four ways of being well undertaken:

(i)      on account of the non-excess of any of the mental states arisen therein;

(ii)     on account of the single nature of the faculties;

(iii)     on account of the sustaining power of the energy which is in conformity therewith;

(iv)    because of the complete abolition of the defilements opposed thereto.

[Note: What follows is a play on the word susamaaradha.m “well undertaken,” which is here analysed as sama.m “calm,” and susama.m “absolute calm,” and aaraddha.m “undertaken.”]

“Calm” is those states that are blameless, profitable, and partake of enlightenment—these are “calm.” “Absolute calm” is the object of any such states, which is cessation, Nibbaana—this is “absolute calm.” So this “calm” and this “absolute calm” are known, seen, experienced, realized, attained, through understanding; tireless energy is “undertaken,” unremitting mindfulness is established (founded), the untroubled body is tranquillized, the concentrated mind is one-pointed.

(.m26). “Gradually brought to growth”: by means of all the sixteen bases of respiration-mindfulness there is successive previous growth and successive subsequent further growth. And all the sixteen-based kinds of respiration-mindfulness are interdependently brought to growth and further growth.

(.m27). “According as”: there are ten meanings of “according as,” namely, those of—

self-taming,[43]
self-tranquillizing
self-extinction,
direct knowledge,
full-understanding,
abandoning,
development,
realization,
complete comprehension of the truths,
establishment of cessation.

(.m28). “The Buddha”: He who is the Blessed One, self-become, having no teacher in things formerly unknown, who himself discovered the Truths, attained to omniscience therein and to mastery of the powers.

“The Buddha”: in what sense “the Buddha” (the Enlightened One)? Enlightened because he is the discoverer of the truths, the enlightener of the generation; because of omniscience, of seeing all, of not being enlightened by another, of majesty; through being called one whose cankers are destroyed, through being called freed from the substrata of existence; because he is quite without greed, quite without hate, quite without delusion, quite without defilement, gone by the one path, the only discoverer of the peerless full enlightenment, the destroyer of non-enlightenment, the receiver of enlightenment.

“The Buddha”: This is not a name given by a mother nor a father, nor a brother, nor a sister, nor by friends and companions, nor by kindred and relatives, nor by recluses and brahmans, nor by deities. It is the name for the ultimate liberation of enlightenment of the Blessed One, together with the omniscient knowledge received at the root of the Tree of Wisdom; it is a designation based on realization, that is to say, this name “the Buddha.”

(.m29). “Taught”: taught by the Buddha in the ten meanings of “according as” (see above).

“He” is a layman or one gone forth.

“World”: the world of the aggregates, of the elements, of the sense bases, the world of misfortune, the world of the origin of misfortune, the world of good fortune, the world of the origin of good fortune.

                              One world:              all beings are maintained by nutriment.

                              Two worlds:            mentality and materiality.

                              Three worlds:          three feelings.[44]

                              Four worlds:            four nutriments.[45]

                              Five worlds:            five aggregates (as objects) of clinging.[46]

                              Six worlds:  six internal sense bases.[47]

                              Seven worlds:          seven stations of consciousness.[48]

                              Eight worlds:           eight worldly conditions.[49]

                              Nine worlds:            nine abodes of beings.[50]

                              Ten worlds: ten sense bases.[51]

Twelve worlds:        twelve sense bases.[52]

Eighteen worlds:      eighteen elements.[53]

(.m30). “Illuminates”: because of being enlightened in the ten meanings of “according as” he lights up, illumines, illuminates this world.

(.m31). “Like the full moon freed from cloud”: as the clouds, so are the defilements; like the moon so is the noble ones’ knowledge; like the full moon, the deity, so is the bhikkhu; as the moon freed from cloud, freed from mist, freed from smoke and dust, freed from the clutches of Raahu,[54] shines and glows and radiates, so, indeed, the bhikkhu freed from all defilements, shines and glows and radiates.

IV. The Thirty-two kinds of Knowledge of Exercise of Mindfulness

Statement of the Method

11. (.m32). (This consists of a repetition of the four tetrads as set forth in the sutta beginning with “Here, … a bhikkhu, gone to the forest …” and ending with “`… contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself”—see pp.9-10).

Analysis of the Method

(.m33). “Here”: in this view, in this experience, in this choice, in this belief, in this norm, in this discipline, in this norm and discipline, in this word, in this life of purity, in this Master’s Dispensation.

A bhikkhu”: a noble commoner, or a trainer, or an unshakable arahat.[55]

Forest”: having gone out beyond the boundary post, all that is forest.

Root of a tree”: where the bhikkhu’s seat, or stool, or cushion, or mat, or piece of hide, or spread of grass, or leaves, or pile of straw, is prepared—there he walks, stands, sits, or lies down.

Empty”: unfrequented by laymen or by those gone forth.

Place”: dwelling, half-gabled building, palace, mansion, cave.[56]

Sits down; having folded his legs crosswise”: is seated, having folded his legs crosswise.

Set his body erect”: the body is placed well set, erect.

Established mindfulness in front of him”: [lit.: “having established (upa.t.thapetvaa) mindfulness (sati) around (pari) the face (mukha.m)”] “in (pari)” in the sense of laying hold (pariggaha); “front (mukha.m)” in the sense of outlet (or leading forth, niyyaana); “mindfulness (sati)” in the sense of establishing (foundation, upa.t.thaana).[57]

(.m34). “Ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out”: he is one who practises mindfulness in the thirty-two ways stated above (i.e. the four tetrads, times the two breaths in each case.) For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of each of these thirty-two ways, mindfulness is established (founded); by means of that mindfulness and that knowledge, he is one who practises mindfulness.

First Tetrad

12. (.m35). “Breathing in long, he knows, `I breathe in long’; breathing out long, he knows, `I breathe out long.’”

The Nine Ways of Knowing

(a)     He breathes in a long in-breath reckoned as a long extent.[58]

(b)     He breathes out a long out-breath reckoned as a long extent.

(c)     He breathes in and breathes out long in-breaths and out-breaths reckoned as a long extent.[59] As he breathes in and breathes out long in-breaths and out-breaths reckoned as a long extent, zeal arises.[60]

(d)     Through zeal he breathes in a long in-breath more subtle than before, reckoned as a long extent.

(e)     Through zeal he breathes out a long out-breath more subtle than before, reckoned as a long extent.

(f)     Through zeal he breathes in and breathes out long in-breaths and out-breaths more subtle than before, reckoned as a long extent. As, through zeal, he breathes in and breathes out long in-breaths and out-breaths more subtle than before reckoned as a long extent, joy arises.[61]

(g)     Through joy he breathes in a long in-breath more subtle than before, reckoned as a long extent.

(h)     Through joy he breathes out a long out-breath more subtle than before, reckoned as a long extent.

(i)      Through joy he breathes in and breathes out long in-breaths and out-breaths more subtle than before, reckoned as a long extent. As, through joy, he breathes in and breathes out long in-breaths and out-breaths more subtle than before reckoned as a long extent, the mind turns away from the long in-breaths and out-breaths,[62] and equanimity is established.[63]

The Foundation of Mindfulness

13. In these nine ways long in-breaths and out-breaths are the body.[64] The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.[65] Contemplation is knowledge.[66]

The body is the establishment (foundation), but it is not mindfulness.[67]

Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.[68]

By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates that body.[69]

Hence it is called, “The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body in the body.”[70]

14. (.m36). “He contemplates that body,” means:

He contemplates as impermanent, not as permanent; and in doing so, he abandons the perception of permanence.

He contemplates as suffering, not as pleasure; and in doing so, he abandons the perception of pleasure.

He contemplates as non-self, not as self; and in doing so, he abandons the perception of self.

He feels revulsion, does not enjoy; and in doing so, he abandons enjoying.

He becomes dispassionate, without greed; and in doing so, he abandons greed.

He causes cessation, not arising; and in doing so, he abandons arising.

He renounces, does not cling; and in doing so, he abandons clinging.

“Development”: there are four kinds of development:

 (i)     on account of non-excess of any of the mental states arisen therein;

(ii)     on account of the single nature of the faculties;

(iii)    on account of the sustaining power of the energy which is in conformity therewith;

(iv)    on account of cultivation.

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

15. (.m37). For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind[71] by means of long in-breaths and out-breaths, feelings are known as they arise, known as they appear, known as they subside. Perceptions are known as they arise, known as they appear, known as they subside. Applied thoughts are known as they arise, known as they appear, known as they subside.

(.m38). With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of feeling; with the arising of craving there is the arising of feeling; with the arising of kamma there is the arising of feeling; with the arising of sense-impression[72] there is the arising of feeling. Thus the arising of feeling is known in the sense of arising through the arising of conditions. For one who sees the characteristics of being produced, the arising of feeling is known.

To one who brings them to mind as impermanent,[73] the appearance of dissolution is known. To one who brings them to mind as suffering, the appearance of fear is known. To one who brings them to mind as non-self, the appearance of voidness is known.

With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of feeling; with the cessation of craving there is the cessation of feeling; with the cessation of kamma there is the cessation of feeling; with the cessation of sense-impression there is the cessation of feeling. Thus the cessation of feeling is known in the sense of ceasing through the ceasing of conditions. For one who sees the characteristic of change, the cessation of feeling is known.

(.m39). With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of perception …

To one who brings them to mind as impermanent, the appearance of dissolution is known …

With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of perception …

(.m40). With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of applied thoughts; with the arising of craving there is the arising of applied thoughts; with the arising of kamma there is the arising of applied thoughts; with the arising of perception[74] there is the arising of applied thoughts. Thus the arising of applied thoughts is known in the sense of arising through the arising of conditions. For one who sees the characteristics of being produced, the arising of applied thoughts is known.

To one who brings them to mind as impermanent, the appearance of dissolution is known …

With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of applied thoughts …

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties, etc.

16. (.m41). One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of long in-breaths and out-breaths, brings to bear[75] the faculties, the powers, the enlightenment factors, the path, mental objects, knows the domain, penetrates the meaning of calm.

17. “Brings to bear the faculties”: he brings to bear—the faith faculty in the sense of resolve; the energy faculty in the sense of exertion;

the mindfulness faculty in the sense of establishment (foundation);

the concentration faculty in the sense of non-distraction;

the understanding faculty in the sense of seeing.

This person brings to bear these faculties on this object.

18. “Knows the domain”: that which is his object is his domain; that which is his domain is his object; the person understands through understanding.

“Calm”: the establishment of the object is calm; non-distraction of mind is calm; resolution of mind is calm; purification of mind is calm.

“Meaning” is the blameless meaning, undefiled meaning, purified meaning, highest meaning.

“Penetrates”: he penetrates the establishment (foundation) of the object, the sense of non-distraction of mind, the sense of resolution of mind, the sense of purification of mind.

19. (.m42). “Brings to bear the powers”: he brings to bear—

the faith power in the sense of non-wavering in (the face of)faithlessness;

the energy power                       indolence;

the mindfulness power               negligence;

the concentration power            agitation;

the understanding power            ignorance.

This person brings to bear these powers on this object.

20. “Knows the domain,” etc. (as in 18 above).

21. (.m43). “Brings to bear the enlightenment factors”: he brings to bear—

the mindfulness enlightenment factor in the sense of establishing (foundation);

the investigation-of-states e.f. “  enquiry;

the energy e.f.                                     exertion;

the rapture e.f.                                    pervasion;

the tranquillity e.f.                                calmness;

the concentration e.f.                          non-distraction;

the equanimity e.f.                               reflection.

This person brings to bear these enlightenment factors on this object.

22. “Knows the domain,” etc. (as in 18 above).

23. (.m 44). “Brings to bear the path”: he brings to bear—

right understanding              in the sense of seeing;

right thinking                       in the sense of focusing;

right speech                        in the sense of laying hold;

right action                          in the sense of originating;

right livelihood                    in the sense of purifying;

right effort                           in the sense of exertion;

right mindfulness                 in the sense of establishment                                                (foundation);

right concentration              in the sense of non-distraction.

This person brings to bear this path on this object.

24. “Knows the domain,” etc. (as in 18 above).

25. (.m45). “Brings to bear mental objects”: he brings to bear—[76]

the faculties in the sense of predominance;

the powers in the sense of non-wavering;

the enlightenment factors in the sense of outlet;

the path   in the sense of cause;

the foundation of mindfulness       in the sense of establishment      (foundation)

right effort in the sense of striving;

the road to power in the sense of success;

truth in the sense of reality;

tranquillity in the sense of non-distraction;

insight in the sense of contemplation;

tranquillity and insight       in the sense of single nature,

yoking (of the above two) in the sense of non-excess (of either);

purity of conduct in the sense of restraint;

purity of mind      in the sense of non-distraction;

purity of view      in the sense of seeing;

liberation in the sense of deliverance;

clear vision in the sense of penetration;

deliverance in the sense of giving up;

knowledge of destruction in the sense of cutting off;

knowledge of non-arising in the sense of tranquillization;

zeal in the sense of root cause;

bringing-to-mind in the sense of arousing;

impression in the sense of bringing to bear;

feeling in the sense of meeting together;

concentration in the sense of being foremost;

mindfulness in the sense of predominance;

understanding      in the sense of surpassing;

deliverance in the sense of essence;

deathless Nibbaana in the sense of end.

This person brings to bear these mental objects on this object.

26. “Knows the domain,” etc. (as in 18 above).

27. (.m46) “Breathing in short, he knows, `I breathe in short’; breathing out short, he knows, `I breathe out short.’”

The Nine Ways of Knowing

(a) He breathes in a short in-breath which takes a brief time (and so on as in 12 (b) to (i) substituting “short” for “long”).

The Foundation of Mindfulness

28. In these nine ways short in-breaths and out-breaths are the body.

The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.

Contemplation is knowledge.

The body is the establishment (foundation) but it is not mindfulness.

Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.

By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates that body.

Hence it is called, “The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body in the body.”

29. (.m47). “He contemplates that body,” etc. (as in 14 above).

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

30. For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of short in-breaths and out-breaths, feelings are known as they arise, etc. (as in 15 above).

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties, etc.

31–41. One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of short in-breaths and out-breaths, brings to bear the faculties …, etc. (as in 16–26 above).

42. (.m48). “`Experiencing the whole body,’ I shall breathe in, thus he trains himself; `experiencing the whole body,’ I shall breathe out, thus he trains himself.

“Body”: There are two bodies—the mentality-body and the materiality-body.

Feeling, perception, volition, sense-impression, attention-mentality and the mentality-body—and those (things) which are called the mental formations—this is the mentality-body.[77]

The four great primaries and the materiality derived from the four great primaries—in-breath and out-breath and the sign for the binding (of mindfulness)—and those (things) which are called the bodily formations-this is the materiality-body.[78]

43. (.m49). “Experiencing”: for one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in long, breathing out long, breathing in short, breathing out short, mindfulness is established. By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge those bodies are experienced.[79] They are experienced by one—

who adverts,
who knows,
who sees,
who reflects,
who mentally decides,
who resolves with faith,
who exerts energy,
who establishes mindfulness,
who concentrates the mind,
who understands through understanding,
who directly knows what should be directly known,
who fully understands what should be fully understood,
who abandons what should be abandoned,
who develops what should be developed,
who realizes what should be realized.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

44. Breathing in and out experiencing the whole body are the body.

The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.

Contemplation is knowledge.

The body is the establishment (foundation), but it is not mindfulness.

Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.

By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates that body.

Hence it is called “The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body in the body.”

45. (.m50). “He contemplates that body,” etc. (as in 14 above).

The Three Higher Trainings

46. Breathing in and out experiencing the whole body is purity of conduct in the sense of restraint, purity of consciousness in the sense of non-distraction, and purity of view in the sense of seeing.[80]

What is restraint therein is the training in the higher virtuous conduct; what is non-distraction therein is the training in the higher consciousness; what is seeing therein is the training in the higher understanding. He trains himself in these three trainings:

by adverting,

by knowing,

… (and so on as in 43 above) …

by realizing what should be realized.

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

47. For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out experiencing the whole body, feelings are known as they arise, etc. (as in 15 above).

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties, etc.

48–58. One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out experiencing the whole body, brings to bear the faculties, etc. (as in 16–26 above).

59. (.m51). “`Calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Bodily-formation”: long in-breaths, long out-breaths, short in-breaths, short out-breaths, breathing in experiencing the whole body, breathing out experiencing the whole body—these things are bodily properties; being bound up with the body they are bodily formations.[81] He trains himself by calming, causing to cease, pacifying, those bodily formations.

Such bodily formations whereby there is bending backward, sideways, all ways, forward, shaking, trembling, moving of the body—“`calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Such bodily formations whereby there is no bending backward, sideways, all ways, forward, shaking, trembling, moving of the body—”`Calming the quiet and subtle bodily formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the quiet and subtle bodily formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

The Simile of the Gong

60. (If) it is thus, (it is objected): “`Calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself’—this being so, there is no production of awareness of wind, and there is no production of the in-and-out breathing, and there is no production of respiration-mindfulness, and there is no production of respiration-mindfulness concentration, and accordingly the wise neither enter into, nor emerge from, that attainment.”

(Yet since) it is thus, (it is replied): “`Calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself’—this being so, there is production of awareness of wind,[82] and there is production of the in-and-out breathing, and there is production of respiration-mindfulness, and there is production of respiration-mindfulness concentration, and accordingly the wise do enter into, and emerge from, that attainment.”

Like what? Just as when a metal gong is struck; at first gross sounds occur, and (consciousness proceeds) because the sign[83] of the gross sounds is well grasped, well brought to mind, well considered; and when the gross sounds have ceased, then afterwards faint sounds occur, and (consciousness proceeds) because the sign of the faint sounds is well grasped, well brought to mind, well considered; and when the faint sounds have ceased, then afterwards consciousness proceeds because of having the sign of the faint sounds as object: so indeed, at first gross in-breaths and out-breaths occur and (consciousness does not become distracted) because the sign of the gross in-breaths and out-breaths is well grasped, well brought to mind, well considered; and when the gross in-breaths and out-breaths have ceased, then afterwards faint in-breaths and out-breaths occur, and (consciousness does not become distracted) because the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths is well grasped, well brought to mind, well considered; and when the faint in- and out-breaths have ceased, then afterwards consciousness does not become distracted because of having the sign of the faint in- and out-breaths as object.

This being so, there is production of awareness of wind, and there is production of the in-and out breathing, and there is production of respiration-mindfulness, and there is production of respiration-mindfulness concentration, and accordingly the wise do enter into, and emerge from, that attainment.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

61. Breathing in and out calming the bodily formation is the body. The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.

Contemplation is knowledge.

The body is the establishment (foundation), but it is not mindfulness.

Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.

By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates that body.

Hence it is called, “The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body in the body.”

62. (.m52). “He contemplates that body,” etc. (as in 14 above).

The Three Higher Trainings

63. Breathing in and out calming the bodily formation is purity of conduct in the sense of restraint, etc. (as in 46 above).

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

64. For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out calming the bodily formation, feelings are known as they arise, etc. (as in 15 above).

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties

65–75. One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out calming the bodily formation, brings to bear the faculties, etc. (as in 16–26 above).

Conclusion of the First Tetrad

There are eight kinds of knowledge of contemplation, eight kinds of establishment (foundation) of mindfulness, four bases from the sutta, concerning contemplation of the body in the body.

Second Tetrad

76. (.m53). “`Experiencing rapture, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `experiencing rapture, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

“Rapture”: for one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of the first tetrad the joy of rapture arises.

That rapture which is enjoyment, rejoicing, joyousness, gaiety, happiness, felicity, elation, satisfaction of mind—that is rapture. [84]

77. (.m54)Experiencing”: for one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of the first tetrad, mindfulness is established. By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge that rapture is experienced. It is experienced by one—

who adverts,
who knows,
… (and so on, as in 43 above) …
who realizes what should be realized.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

78. By means of breathing in and out experiencing rapture there is feeling.

The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.

Contemplation is knowledge.

Feeling is the establishment (foundation), but it is not mindfulness.

Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.

By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates that feeling.

Hence it is called, “The development of the establishment (foundation) of

mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the feelings in the feelings.”

79. “He contemplates” that feeling,” etc. (as in 14 above).

The Three Higher Trainings

80. Breathing in and out experiencing rapture is purity of conduct in the sense of restraint, etc. (as in 46 above).

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

81. For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out experiencing rapture, feelings are known as they arise, etc. (as in 15 above).

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties, etc.

82–92. One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out experiencing rapture, brings to bear the faculties, etc. (as in 16–26 above).

93. (.m55). “`Experiencing bliss, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `experiencing bliss, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Bliss”: there are two kinds of bliss, bodily bliss and mental bliss.[85]

That bodily agreeableness and bodily bliss which is agreeable and blissful experience born of bodily impression, agreeable and blissful feeling born of bodily impression—that is bodily bliss.[86]

That mental agreeableness and mental bliss which is agreeable and blissful experience born of mental impression, agreeable and blissful feeling born of mental impression, that is mental bliss.

94.Experiencing”: For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of the first tetrad and the first two modes of the second tetrad, mindfulness is established. By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge that bliss is experienced. It is experienced by one—

who adverts,

who knows,

… (and so on, as in 43 above) …

who realizes what should be realized.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

95. By means of breathing in and out experiencing bliss there is feeling etc. (as in 78 above).

96–109. (As in 79–92 above, substituting “bliss” for “rapture”.)

 

110. (.m56). “`Experiencing the mental formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `experiencing the mental formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Mental formation”: perception and feeling through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of the first tetrad and the first four modes of the second tetrad—these things are mental properties, being bound up with the mind, they are mental formations—this is the mental formation.

111.Experiencing”: For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of the first tetrad and the first four modes of the second tetrad, mindfulness is established. By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge that mental formation is experienced. It is experienced by one—

who adverts,

who knows,

… (and so on, as in 43 above) …

who realizes what should be realized.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

112. By means of breathing in and out experiencing the mental formation there is feeling, etc. (as in 78 above).

113–126. (As in 79–92 above, substituting “the mental formation” for “rapture.”)

127. (.m57). “`Calming the mental formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `calming the mental formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Mental formation”: perception and feeling through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of the first tetrad and the first six modes of the second tetrad—these things are mental properties, being bound up with the mind they are mental formations—he trains himself by calming, causing to cease, pacifying those mental formations.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

128. By means of breathing in and out calming the mental formation there is feeling, etc. (as in 78 above).

129–142. (As in 79–92 above, substituting “calming the mental formation” for “experiencing rapture.”)

Conclusion of the Second Tetrad

There are eight kinds of knowledge of contemplation, eight kinds of establishment (foundation) of mindfulness, four bases from the sutta, concerning contemplation of the feelings in the feelings.

Third Tetrad

143. (.m58). “`Experiencing the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `experiencing the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Mind”: Through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of each of the first two tetrads there is mind which is consciousness; that mind which is intellect, intellection, heart, lucidity, mind, mind-base, mind-faculty, consciousness, consciousness aggregate, appropriate mind-consciousness element—that is mind.[87]

144. “Experiencing”: for one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of each of the first two tetrads, mindfulness is established. By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge that mind is experienced. It is experienced by one—

who adverts,
who knows,
… (and so on, as in 43 above) …
who realizes what should be realized.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

145. By means of breathing in and out experiencing the mind there is mind which is consciousness.

The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.

Contemplation is knowledge.

Mind which is consciousness is the establishment (foundation), but it is not mindfulness.

Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.

By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates that mind which is consciousness.

Hence it is called, “The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the mind in the mind.”

146. “He contemplates that mind,” etc. (as in 14 above).

The Three Higher Trainings

147. Breathing in and out experiencing the mind is purity of conduct in the sense of restraint, etc. (as in 46 above).

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

148. For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out experiencing the mind, feelings are known as they arise, etc. (as in 15 above).

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties, etc.

149–159. One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out experiencing the mind, brings to bear the faculties, etc. (as in 16–26 above).

160. (.m59). “`Gladdening the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `gladdening the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Gladdening”: For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of each of the first two tetrads and the first two modes of the third tetrad, there arises gladdening of the mind. That mental enjoyment which is rejoicing, joyousness, gaiety, happiness, felicity, elation, satisfaction of mind-that is gladdening of the mind.[88]

The Foundation of Mindfulness

161.     By means of breathing in and out gladdening the mind there is mind which is consciousness, etc. (as in 145 above).

162–175. (As in 146–159 above, substituting “gladdening” for “experiencing.”)

176. (.m60). “`Concentrating the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `concentrating the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Concentrating”: one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind through breathing in and out in each of the eight modes of each of the first two tetrads and the first six modes of the third tetrad is concentration; that establishment, stability, steadiness, which is undisturbedness, non-distraction, undisturbed intellection, tranquillity, concentration faculty, concentration power, right concentration—that is concentration.[89]

The Foundation of Mindfulness

177. By means of breathing in and out concentrating the mind there is mind which is consciousness, etc. (as in 145 above).

178–191. (As in 146–159 above, substituting “concentrating” for “experiencing.”)

192. (.m51). “`Liberating the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `liberating the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

“`Liberating the mind from greed, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘liberating the mind from greed, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Similarly with hate, delusion, pride, wrong view, uncertainty, stiffness-and-torpor, agitation, lack of shame, lack of moral dread.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

193. By means of breathing in and out liberating the mind there is mind which is consciousness, etc. (as in 145 above).

194–207. (As in 146–159 above, substituting “liberating” for “experiencing.”)

Conclusion of the Third Tetrad

There are eight kinds of knowledge of contemplation, eight kinds of establishment (foundation) of mindfulness, four bases from the sutta, concerning contemplation of the mind in the mind.

Fourth Tetrad

208. (.m62). “`Contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Impermanence”: The five aggregates are impermanent in the sense of rise and fall.[90] One who sees the rise of the five aggregates sees twenty-five characteristics.[91] One who sees the fall of the five aggregates sees twenty-five characteristics. One who sees the rise and fall of the five aggregates sees fifty characteristics.

209. Contemplating impermanence in materiality, I shall breathe in, thus he trains himself; contemplating impermanence in materiality, I shall breathe out, thus he trains himself.”

“Contemplating impermanence in feeling … trains himself.
“Contemplating impermanence in perception … trains himself.
“Contemplating impermanence in formations … trains himself.
“Contemplating impermanence in consciousness … trains himself.

(And similarly in respect of each single thing in the following groups:)[92]

the six internal sense-bases,
                  the six external sense-bases,
                  the sixfold consciousness group,
                  the sixfold sense-impression group,
                  the sixfold feeling group,
                  the sixfold perception group,
                  the sixfold volition group,
                  the sixfold craving group,
                  the sixfold applied thought group,
                  the sixfold sustained thought group,
                  the six elements (beginning with earth),
                  the ten kasi.nas (ending with consciousness),
                  the thirty-two parts of the body,
                  the twelve internal and external sense-bases,
                  the eighteen elements,
                  the twenty-two faculties,
                  the three elements (beginning with sense-desire),
                  the nine kinds of existence,
                  the four fine-material jhaanas,
                  the four mind deliverances,
                  the four immaterial jhaanas,
                  the twelve links of dependent origination.

The Foundation of Mindfulness

210. By means of breathing in and out contemplating impermanence there are mental objects.

            The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness.

            Contemplation is knowledge.

            Mental objects are the establishment (foundation), but they are not mindfulness.

            Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness.

            By means of that mindfulness and that knowledge he contemplates those mental objects.

            Hence it is called, “The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of mental objects in mental objects.”

211. “He contemplates those mental objects,” etc. (as in 14 above).

The Three Higher Trainings

212. Breathing in and out contemplating impermanence is purity of conduct in the sense of restraint, etc. (as in 46 above).

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

213. For one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out contemplating impermanence, feelings are known as they arise, etc. (as in 15 above).

The Bringing to Bear of the Faculties, etc.

214–224. One who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and out contemplating impermanence, brings to bear the faculties, etc. (as in 16–26 above).

225. (.m63). “`Contemplating fading away, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `contemplating fading away, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Seeing danger in materiality, he is filled with the desire for the fading away of materiality, is resolute in faith, and his mind is firmly decided.[93]

“`Contemplating fading away of materiality, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating fading away of materiality, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

(Similar paragraphs for each of the items listed in 209.)

The Foundation of Mindfulness

226. By means of breathing in and out contemplating fading away there are mental objects, etc. (as in 210 above).

227–240. (As in 211–224 above, substituting “fading away” for “impermanence.”)

241. (.m64). “`Contemplating cessation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `contemplating cessation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Seeing danger in materiality, he is filled with desire for the cessation of materiality, is resolute in faith, and his mind is firmly decided.

“`Contemplating cessation of materiality, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating cessation of materiality, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

(Similar paragraphs for each of the items listed in 209 above.)

242. (.m65). There is danger through ignorance in five ways:

in the sense of impermanence,
in the sense of suffering,
in the sense of non-self,
in the sense of burning,
in the sense of change.

There is cessation of ignorance in eight ways:

with the cessation of origination,
with the cessation of arising,
with the cessation of birth,
with the cessation of producing,
with the cessation of cause,
with the cessation of condition,
with the arising of knowledge,
with the manifestation of cessation.

Seeing danger through ignorance in these five ways, with the cessation of ignorance in these eight ways, he is filled with zeal, resolute in faith, and his mind is firmly decided.

“`Contemplating the cessation of ignorance, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating the cessation of ignorance, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”[94]

(.m66) There is danger through formations in five ways: (and so on, with similar paragraphs for each of the remaining ten links of dependent origination, namely: consciousness, mentality-materiality, sixfold sense-base, sense-impression, feeling, craving, clinging, becoming, birth, old-age-and-death).

The Foundation of Mindfulness

243. By means of breathing in and out contemplating cessation there are mental objects, etc. (as in 210 above).

244–257. (As in 211–224 above, substituting “cessation” for “impermanence.”)

258. (.m67). “`Contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; `contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Relinquishment”: there are two kinds of relinquishment, relinquishment as giving up and relinquishment as entering into.

Relinquishment as giving up, gives up materiality; the entering of the mind into the cessation of materiality, into Nibbaana, is relinquishment as entering into.

“`Contemplating relinquishment of materiality, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating relinquishment of materiality, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”

Relinquishment as giving up, gives up feelings; (and so on, with similar paragraphs for each of the items listed in 209 above).

The Foundation of Mindfulness

259. By means of breathing in and out contemplating relinquishment there are mental objects, etc. (as in 210 above).

260–273. (As in 211–224 above, substituting “relinquishment” for “impermanence.”)

Conclusion of the Fourth Tetrad

There are eight kinds of knowledge of contemplation, eight kinds of establishment (foundation) of mindfulness, four bases from the sutta, concerning contemplation of mental objects in mental objects.

V. The Twenty-four Kinds of Knowledge through Concentration[95]

274. (.m68). These are the one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind by means of breathing in and breathing out in each of the four bases of each of the first three tetrads.

VI. The Seventy-two Kinds of Knowledge through Insight

275. These are the insight in the sense of contemplation of impermanence, suffering, and non-self by means of breathing in and breathing out in each of the four bases of the first three tetrads.

VII. The Eight Kinds of Knowledge of Revulsion

276. Contemplating impermanence while breathing in, he knows and sees according to reality[96]—this is knowledge of revulsion. Contemplating impermanence while breathing out, he knows and sees according to reality—this is knowledge of revulsion … (and so on, with the remaining six modes of the last tetrad).

VIII. The Eight Kinds of Knowledge in Conformity with Revulsion

277. The understanding of the appearance of fear[97] when contemplating impermanence while breathing in, is knowledge in conformity with revulsion. The understanding of the appearance of fear when contemplating impermanence while breathing out, is knowledge in conformity with revulsion … (and so on, with the remaining six modes of the last tetrad).

IX. The Eight Kinds of Knowledge of Tranquillization of Revulsion

278. The understanding which is reflection and composure[98] when contemplating impermanence while breathing in, is knowledge of tranquillization of revulsion. The understanding which is reflection and composure when contemplating impermanence while breathing out, is knowledge of tranquillization of revulsion … (and so on, with the remaining six modes of the last tetrad).

X. The Twenty-one Kinds of Knowledge of the Bliss of Deliverance[99]

279. Knowledge of the bliss of deliverance arises because of the abandoning and cutting off by the path of stream-entry of—

(i)         personality view,

(ii)        uncertainty,

(iii)       use of rites and rituals,

(iv)       the inherent tendency to wrong view,

(v)                the inherent tendency to uncertainty;

by the path of once return of—

(vi)       the gross fetter of lust,

(vii)      the gross fetter of aversion,

(viii)      the gross inherent tendency to lust,

(ix)       the gross inherent tendency to aversion;

by the path of non-return of—

(x)        the residual fetter of lust,

(xi)       the residual fetter of aversion,

(xii)      the residual inherent tendency to lust,

(xiii)           the residual inherent tendency to aversion;

by the path of arahatship of—

(xiv)     greed for material existence,

(xv)      greed for immaterial existence,

(xvi)     pride,

(xvii)     agitation,

(xviii)    ignorance,

(xix)     the inherent tendency to pride,

(xx)      the inherent tendency to greed for existence,

(xxi)     the inherent tendency to ignorance.

Notes

Part III : The Pa.tisambhidaa-magga



[1]       § = paragraph of PTS edition.

[2]       For convenience “breathing in” is referred to as a “mode,” likewise “breathing out.” The two taken together are referred to as a “base,” of which there are four in each of the four tetrads.

[3]       “Respiration-mindfulness” (aanaapaanasati = aana + apaana + sati): “Aana.m is the wind entering inwards. Apaana.m is the wind issuing outwards. But some say it is the other way round” (Pa.tis-a 320).

[4]       “It establishes the unities in the first place in the plane of access, through the absence of distraction by many objects” (Pa.tis-a 321).

[5]       “Hindrances in the sense of shutting off the way of approach to the outlets” (Pa.tis-a 321).

[6]       “It is an outlet for the noble ones by way of being the approach to fruition, because the noble path, called the outlet of the noble ones who stand on the path, acts as the cause of that fruition” (Pa.tis-a 321).

[7]       Reading kha.nikasamodhaanaa ime a.t.thaarasa upakkilesaa uppajjanti. “The imperfections that arise do so in connection from moment to moment, in momentary sequence, not in a single moment of consciousness” (Pa.tis-a 321).

[8]       “Of the breath entering inwards, the nose-tip or the upper lip is the beginning, the heart the middle, and the navel the end. The mind of one who follows with mindfulness the beginning, middle, and end of that in-breath becomes unsteady, and the mind which is unsteady owing to non-establishment of the unities is an obstacle to concentration” (Pa.tis-a 322).

[9]       “Of the breath issuing outwards, the navel is the beginning, the heart the middle, and the nose-tip or the upper lip or the space outside is the end” (Pa.tis-a 322)

[10]     “The desire, called the longing for continual gross in-breathing, after concluding that ‘this meditation subject is dependent on the passage of wind through the nostrils,’ is the occurrence of craving. When craving occurs it is an obstacle to concentration, because there is no establishment of the unities” (Pa.tis-a 322).

[11]     “The desire, called longing for the out-breathing again preceded by in-breathing” (Pa.tis-a 322).

[12]     “One who makes a very long or a very short in-breath, and because of the presence of bodily and mental fatigue caused by that in-breath, is irritated and harassed by that in-breath” (Pa.tis-a 322).

                  “Greed for the obtaining of the out-breath in one who aspires to out-breath and perceives satisfaction in out-breath just because of being harassed by in-breath” (Pa.tis-a 322).

[13]     The same explanation applies as in note 11; but change “in-breath” to “out-breath,” and conversely.

[14]     “The ‘sign’ is the place where the in-breaths and out-breaths touch. For in-breaths and out-breaths as they occur strike the nose-tip of one with a long nose, and the upper lip of one with a short nose” (Pa.tis-a 323).

[15]     “Consciousness which follows after in-breath or out-breath which has passed beyond the place of contact and gone away from it” (Pa.tis-a 323).

[16]     “Consciousness which is expecting and awaiting in-breath or out-breath not yet arrived at the place of contact” (Pa.tis-a 323).

[17]     “In one bringing to mind the sign of in-breaths and out-breaths, greed arises in regard to the rapture and bliss that have arisen, or in regard to a past subject for laughter, talk, or amusement” (Pa.tis-a 323).

[18]     “Ill will attacks the mind, either through mental pain which has arisen in the mind that has grown dissatisfied with paying attention to (the meditation subject), or through regarding causes for annoyance formerly experienced” (Pa.tis-a 323).

[19]     “Consciousness is fixed on the place of contact of the breaths” (Pa.tis-a 324).

[20]     “Exerting by means of the development of the enlightenment factors of investigation-of-states and rapture” (Pa.tis-a 324).

[21]     “Restraining by means of the development of the enlightenment factors of tranquility, concentration, and equanimity. Or ‘exerting by means of the faculties of mindfulness and energy, and restraining by means of the faculties of mindfulness and concentration,’ they say also” (Pa.tis-a 324).

[22]      “Clearly comprehending in this case through contemplation of the ‘foul’ (i.e. the thirty-two parts of the body or the nine charnel ground contemplations), thus he abandons lust” (Pa.tis-a 324).

[23]     “Clearly comprehending in this second case through contemplation of amity; thus he abandons ill will” (Pa.tis-a 324).

[24]     “Daanupasaggupa.t.thaanekatta: the relinquishment (upasagga) of the giving (daana) called the gift (daanavatthu) = relinquishment in giving (daanupasagga), that is to say, the volition of giving up the gift; the establishing (upa.t.thaana) of that volition, the remaining after approaching it by making it the object of consciousness = establishment of relinquishment in giving (daanupasaggupa.t.thaana); the unity consisting of that, or the unity obtained thereby, is the unity which is the establishing of relinquishment in giving (daanupasaggupa.t.thaanekatta). By deduction, the concentration on the recollection of generosity (see Vism VII, 107) is expressed by this phrase. Also by deduction it is expressed as the decisive-support condition for the other three unities that follow; that is why it is set forth here, they say.

                        “Or alternatively, as regards these four unities, the first may be understood as expressing access concentration, the second full absorption, the third insight, and the fourth the paths and fruitions” (Pa.tis-a 324).

[25]     “The ‘higher consciousness’ is concentration made the basis for insight” (Pa.tis-a 325).

[26]     “Of those who see by insight the formations by means of the three contemplations beginning with the contemplation of dissolution (see Vism XXI, 10ff. and note 95 below)” (Pa.tis-a 325).

[27]     “Of the eight noble persons” (Pa.tis-a 325); that is, the path and fruition of stream-entry, once-return, non-return, and arahatship.

[28]     Reading pa.tipadaavisuddhipakkhanta.m. “The practice itself is the purity because of purification from the stains of the defilements. Entered into, gone into, that purity of practice” (Pa.tis-a 325).

[29]     “Grown strong, increased, in the equanimity of the central state of equipoise” (Pa.tis-a 325).

[30]     “Gladdened, cleansed, purified by cleansing knowledge. “And ‘purity of practice’ is access with its constituents; ‘strengthening in equanimity’ is full absorption; ‘gladdening’ is reflection, according to some. But because ‘consciousness become one-pointed is then entered into purity of practice,’ and so on, is said, therefore, during full absorption, ‘purity of practice’ should be understood as the way of arrival, ‘strengthening in equanimity’ as functioning through the equanimity of the central state of equipoise, and ‘gladdening’ as the success of the function of cleansing-knowledge by producing a state of non-excess of any mental state. How? At the time when full absorption arises, then the mind is purified from the groups of defilements called hindrances which are an obstacle to that jhaana, and being rid of obstructions because of that purification, it arrives at the central (state which is the) sign of tranquility” (Pa.tis-a 325).

[31]     First, second, third, and fourth ruupa (fine-material) jhaana: see M I 21–22, etc., for description, and Vism, Ch. IV, for full details.

[32]     Attainment of the sphere of boundless space, of boundless consciousness, of nothingness, and of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; see M I 41 for description and Vism, Ch. X, for details.

[33]     Contemplation of impermanence,
contemplation of suffering,
contemplation of non-self,
contemplation of revulsion (nibbidaa),
contemplation of fading away (viraaga),
contemplation of cessation,
contemplation of relinquishment,
contemplation of destruction,
contemplation of passing away,
contemplation of change,
contemplation of the signless,
contemplation of the desireless,
contemplation of the void,
insight into states which is the higher understanding,
the eye of knowledge according to reality,
contemplation of danger,
contemplation of reflection,
contemplation of turning away (viva.t.ta).

[34]     The paths of stream-entry, once-return, non-return, and arahatship.

[35]     “‘The central (state of equipoise which is the) sign of tranquility’ is a name for full absorption which is proceeding evenly. But the consciousness immediately before that, which approaches that state by the method of change in a single continuity, is said to arrive at the central (state of equipoise which is the) sign of tranquility. Because of having thus arrived, it is said to enter into that full absorption through the approach to that state” (Pa.tis-a 326).

[36]     “Thus, in the first place (see last note), purity of practice should be understood as providing the cause existing in the consciousness preceding full absorption, in the sense of approach to the actual moment of arising of the first jhaana.

                  “But, while doing no work of purifying owing to the absence of need for further purification of the mind thus purified, it is said that ‘the purified mind looks on with equanimity.’ And while doing no work of further concentrating the mind that has arrived at tranquility through the approach to the state of tranquility aforesaid, it is said that ‘being arrived at tranquility, it looks on with equanimity.’ And lastly, while doing no work of further establishing the unities in the mind that is already established through unity by abandoning its contact with the defilements owing to the very fact of having arrived at tranquility, it is said that ‘having established the unities, it looks on with equanimity’ “ (Pa.tis-a 326)

[37]     “At this time the pair of states called concentration and understanding [Note: elsewhere usually referred to as tranquility and insight (samatha-vipassanaa)] which came into being when the mind was thus strengthened in equanimity, proceed evenly, without either one exceeding the other; and the faculties of faith, etc., proceed with a single nature through having the nature of deliverance, because of being delivered from the various defilements, and the energy which is in conformity therewith, which is suitable to their non-excess and single nature, has sustaining power; and cultivation occurs in that moment. And all these aspects are produced through knowledge because of gladdening, purifying, and cleansing, accordingly after seeing the various dangers in the defilements and advantages in purification. Therefore, ‘gladdening’ should be understood as the accomplishment of the function of knowledge which cleanses by consolidating the non-excess and single nature of those states.

                  “And in this connection, ‘gladdening,’ as a function of knowledge, is called ‘the end’ since knowledge due to equanimity is made clear in the passage: ‘the mind thus exerted looks on with complete equanimity’; then the understanding faculty is predominant by virtue of understanding due to equanimity. Through equanimity the mind is liberated from variety and defilements; then the understanding faculty is predominant by virtue of understanding due to liberation. Because of being liberated, these states come to be of a single nature; then the understanding faculty is predominant by virtue of understanding due to development in the sense of single nature (Pa.tis II 25)” (Pa.tis-a 326).

[38]     “‘The sign for the binding’ is the nose-tip or the upper lip, which is the cause and the sign for the binding of mindfulness” (Pa.tis-a 328).

[39]     The last lines = Dhp 382; the whole verse = Th 548.

[40]     The Paali reads: “aanan’ ti assaaso no pasaaso,” “apaanan’ ti passaaso no assaaso.” Punctuation in PTS text is misleading.

                  The object of this passage seems to be that of equating aana with assaasa, and apaana with passaasa, in order to make certain which is being referred to.

[41]     “Perfected by the attainment of the arahat path successively through jhaana, insight, and the (lower) paths. And ‘in the sense of laying hold,’ and so on, is said with reference to these things, namely, jhaana, insight, and the paths. For these things are ‘layings hold’ because of being laid hold of by one who meditates; accordingly it is perfected in the sense of laying hold. And because of the converging there in mutual relationship of all the mental faculties it is ‘perfected in the sense of converging.’ And through the perfecting of development it is ‘perfected in the sense of perfecting’” (Pa.tis-a 329).

[42]     “On whatever one of the sixteen bases of respiration-mindfulness” (Pa.tis-a 330).

[43]     “At the moment of the arahat path ‘self-taming’ is the gentleness of the self; ‘tranquillizing’ is cooling; ‘extinction’ is extinction of defilement; ‘direct knowledge’ is by way of all states; ‘full understanding’ is the function of path knowledge; ‘complete comprehension of the truths’ is seeing the four truths with a single (simultaneous) penetration; ‘establishment of cessation’ is making cessation the object of consciousness” (Pa.tis-a 332).

[44]     Pleasant, painful, and neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling.

[45]     “Material food, sense-impression, mental volition, consciousness” (M I 48).

[46]     Materiality, feeling, perception, formations, consciousness (see SN 22:48).

[47]     Eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind (see SN 35, and M I 52, etc.)

[48]     (1) Sense-sphere, (2) Brahmaa’s retinue, (3) Aabhassara deities, (4) Subhaki.n.na deities, (5) sphere of boundless space, (6) sphere of boundless consciousness, (7) sphere of nothingness. (See DN III 253.)

[49]     Gain, fame, blame, pleasure, and their opposites. (See DN III 260.)

[50]     (1) Sense-sphere, (2) Brahmaa’s retinue, (3) Aabhassara deities, (4) Subhaki.n.na deities, (5) unconscious beings, (6) sphere of boundless space, (7) sphere of boundless consciousness, (8) sphere of nothingness, (9) sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. (See DN III 263.)

[51]     Eye, visible-object; ear, sound; nose, odour; tongue, flavour; body, tangible-object. (See SN 35 and M I 111–12.)

[52]     As the last, plus mind and mental object.

[53]     –Eye, visible-object, eye-consciousness;
–ear, sound, ear-consciousness;
–nose, odour, nose-consciousness;
–tongue, flavour, tongue-consciousness;
–body, tangible object, body-consciousness;
–mind, mental object, mind-consciousness. (See M III 62.)

                  This particular form of list is a device used in several instances in the Pa.tisambhidaa Ñaa.nakathaa first section, where it appears in various forms. It is also the formula of the Kumaarapañha of the Khuddakapaa.tha.

[54]     The demon who is supposed to take the moon in his mouth during an eclipse.

[55]     “‘A noble commoner’ is a commoner, i.e. one who has not attained (the paths), through his not having cut off the defilements (by attaining the path); he is noble through his devotion to the observance of training; he trains in the higher training. ‘A trainer’ (sekha) is a stream-enterer, a once-returner, or a non-returner. An arahat possesses the state of fruition which is unshakable and incapable of being moved” (Pa.tis-a 349).

[56]     The exact significance of some of these terms is not clear at this distance of time. Vism-mh.t 350 comments “`Dwelling’: any of the remaining dwellings mentioned (in the Vinaya) except a ‘half-gabled building,’ etc. ‘Half-gabled building’ is like a bird’s crooked wing. ‘Palace’: a long palace built with two stories. ‘Mansion’: a gabled palace built on a levelled space. ‘Cave’: a brick hut, stone hut, wooden hut or mud hut.” So it is stated in the commentary to the Khandhakas (see Vin. Cullavagga, 158, and Samantapaasaadikaa). But in the Vibhaòga Commentary a ‘dwelling’ is an abode constructed entirely within a surrounding path, showing it is for use day and night; and a ‘cave’ is an underground cave where a lamp is needed day and night.

[57]     “‘In the sense of laying hold’: in the sense of being laid hold of. What is laid hold of? The outlet. What outlet? Respiration-mindfulness concentration itself is the outlet, as far as the arahat path. Hence he said, ‘In the sense of outlet.’ It is by the meaning of the word mukha as foremost that the meaning of ‘outlet from the round of rebirths’ is expressed. ‘In the sense of establishing’ is just in the sense of its own nature. But the meaning expressed by all these words is: ‘having made mindfulness the outlet which is laid hold of.’ Some, however, explain as follows: ‘in the sense of laying hold’ means in the sense of laying hold with mindfulness; ‘in the sense of outlet’ means in the sense of the door of entry and exit of the in-breaths and out-breaths; then, ‘having established mindfulness as the outlet of the in-breaths and out-breaths which is laid hold of,’ is what is said” (Pa.tis-a 350–51).

[58]     “‘Reckoned as a long extent’ means in a time called long; for a long road is called ‘an extent,’ and this time is so called as though it actually were an extent because of its length” (Pa.tis-a 351).

[59]     “After saying firstly, ‘he breathes in’ and ‘he breathes out,’ and ‘in-breaths’ and ‘out-breaths,’ separately, they are combined together in the expression, ‘he breathes in and breathes out,’ in order to show the uninterrupted process of development” (Pa.tis-a 351).

[60]     “‘Zeal arises’: zeal is produced through increased progress in development” (Pa.tis-a 351). Vism-mh.t, commenting independently on this passage where it is quoted in Vism, says: “Owing to the pleasure obtained by the gradual bringing about of attainment through development, profitable desire arises, here specially characterized by desire to act” (Vism-mh.t 260).

[61]     “`Joy arises’: rapture is produced owing to the perfecting of the development” (Pa.tis-a 351). Vism-mh.t says: “Through the more subtle state of the in-breaths and out-breaths, through the increased peacefulness of the object, through the advancement of the meditation subject, there arises joy for the mind devoted to development, namely, rapture of the lesser and other kinds” (Vism-mh.t 260–61). The five kinds of rapture are given as lesser rapture, momentary rapture, flooding rapture, transporting rapture, and ecstatic rapture (PTS Dict., under piiti).

[62]     “`The mind turns away’: when the counterpart sign dependent on the in-breaths and out-breaths arises, the mind turns away from the original in-breaths and out-breaths” (Pa.tis-a 351). Vism-mh.t says: “The mind turns away from those (breaths) which have reached a point approaching non-manifestation owing to their occurring with ever more extreme subtlety. But some (say) that when the in-breaths and out-breaths have reached a more subtle state, then, when the counterpart sign has arisen, the mind turns away from the original in-breaths and out-breaths” (Vism-mh.t 261)

[63]     “`Equanimity is established’: the central state of equipoise is established because of the absence, due to the production of access or full absorption in that counterpart sign, of (need for) further work of concentrating” (Pa.tis-a 351)

[64]     “`The body’: the in-breaths and out-breaths as particles constitute ‘the body’ in the sense of a mass. And the sign which has arisen in dependence on the original in-breath and original out-breath is also given the name ‘in-breath and out-breath’ “ (Pa.tis-a 351)

[65]     “`The establishment (foundation) is mindfulness’: the mindfulness defined as ‘having arrived at that object, it remains’ is the ‘establishment’” (Pa.tis-a 351).

                        Satipa.t.thaana (establishment, or foundation, of mindfulness) is derived consistently by the Pa.tisambhidaa from sati (mindfulness) and upa.t.thaana (establishment-but this word also means “appearance” and “waiting on,” among other things). The sutta commentaries, however, favour derivation from sati and pa.t.thaana (“foundation”-see M-a I 237–38; commentary to MN10). The paragraph in question is repeated for each of the sixteen bases with the purpose of showing which of the four satipa.t.thaana is being practised. There is no English word which quite straddles these two meanings; hence the clumsy device adopted here of coupling the two words “establishment” and “foundation” together.

[66]     “`Contemplation is knowledge’: as tranquility it is contemplation of the sign-body, and as insight it is contemplation of the mentality-body that is knowledge, is the meaning” (Pa.tis-a 351). Vism-mh.t states more fully: “‘Contemplation is knowledge’: as tranquility, it is contemplation of the sign-body (that is knowledge); and as insight, it is contemplation of mentality-materiality by defining the in-breaths and out-breaths and the body on which they depend as ‘materiality,’ and consciousness and the states associated therewith as ‘the immaterial’ that is knowledge, which here means understanding according to reality” (Vism-mh.t 261).

[67]     “`The body is the establishment (foundation)’: that body is called the establishment, since mindfulness, having approached (it), remains (is stabilized) there. ‘But it is not mindfulness’: but it is not that body that is called mindfulness, is the meaning” (Pa.tis-a 351).

[68]     “`Mindfulness is both the establishment (foundation) and mindfulness’ in the sense of remembering and in the sense of establishing” (Vism-mh.t 261).

[69]     “`By means of that mindfulness’ and ‘by means of that knowledge’ here stated, having approached that aforesaid body with tranquility and insight, he sees by means of knowledge associated with jhaana, or by means of insight knowledge. This sentence contains the word ‘body’ with reference to the passage (that follows, namely), ‘The development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body in the body’ that has now to be stated, because this tetrad is stated by way of contemplation of the body, although the words ‘body’ and so on, are absent in the list (of bases) itself” (Pa.tis-a 351–52).

[70]     “`Contemplation of the body in the body’ is contemplation of that body in a manifold body; or alternatively, it is contemplation of the body, not contemplation of any other state, in the body, is what is said. Not the contemplation of permanence, pleasure, self in the body which is impermanent, painful, non-self, but rather contemplation of that very body as impermanent, painful, non-self. Or alternatively, contemplation of just that mere body itself, because of non-contemplation of anything to be taken as ‘I’ or ‘mine’ or ‘woman’ or ‘man.’ Likewise, below, in the three cases of ‘contemplation of the feelings in the feelings,’ etc.

                        “Mindfulness itself as the establishment (foundation) is ‘the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness’; the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness which is associated with contemplation of the body is ‘the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body’; the development of that is ‘the development of the establishment (foundation) of mindfulness consisting of contemplation of the body.’

                        “`That body’: although the mentality-materiality body is not expressly stated, it is nevertheless as though it had been, because of its being included in the word ‘body’; for the contemplations of impermanence and so on are only applicable to the mentality-materiality body, not to the sign-body. ‘Contemplation’ and ‘development’ have the aforesaid meanings” (Pa.tis-a 352).

[71]     “This section is given in order to point out the benefits of the development of respiration-mindfulness. For its benefits are the enrichment of mindfulness and the enrichment of knowledge. Herein, ‘for one who knows one-pointedness and non-distraction of mind’ is said with reference to the one-pointednes of mind at the time of insight in one who has obtained jhaana. ‘Feelings are known’: feelings are known in general by seeing them rise; ‘known as they appear’: they appear known as destructible, perishable, and void; ‘known as they subside’: known in general by seeing fall; they subside, break up, is the meaning. The same applies to perception and applied thoughts. But when these three are stated, the remaining immaterial states are also stated. But why are only these three stated? Because of difficulty in grasping. As regards the feeling, among these the pleasant and painful are evident, but the neither-pleasant-nor-painful is subtle, difficult to grasp, and unevident; though it is evident to him. Perception, because it only grasps aspects, does not grasp things according to their true nature; and, when it is associated with insight knowledge, which grasps specific and general characteristics, it is very unevident; though that also is evident to him. Applied thought, because of its resemblance to knowledge, is difficult to lay hold of apart from knowledge, according as it is said, ‘That which is right view, friend Visaakha, and that which is right thinking-these things are included in the understanding group (of the Eightfold Path)’ (M I 301); though that applied thought also is evident to him” (Pa.tis-a 353).

                  This section, which is also repeated for all the sixteen bases, would appear to present the practice of mindfulness and clear comprehension, since it coincides with an Aòguttara Nikaaya sutta which runs, “And how, bhikkhus, does concentration being developed and much practised lead to mindfulness and clear comprehension? Here, bhikkhus, for a bhikkhu, feelings are known as they arise, known as they appear, known as they subside; perceptions are known as they arise …; applied thoughts are known as they arise …,” etc. (A  II 45; cf. M III 124). The prime importance of mindfulness and clear comprehension (sati-sampajañña) is given full emphasis in MN 10 and its commentary.

[72]     “‘With the arising of ignorance … with the cessation of ignorance,’ etc.: in the section on applied thoughts, instead of saying, ‘with the arising of sense-impression … with the cessation of sense-impression,’ ‘with the arising of perception… with the cessation of perception’ is said. Why is that? Because applied thought is rooted in perception, for ‘variety of thinking arises due to variety of perception’ is said” (Pa.tis-a 353).

[73]     “As regards ‘To one who brings them to mind as impermanent,’ and so on, it should be construed in each as: ‘To one who brings feeling to mind as impermanent.’ But, since the feeling which is associated with insight is of no help to insight because it is incapable of accomplishing the function of insight, it has not been handed down among (what are called) the ‘states partaking of enlightenment.’ But the function of perception associated with insight is obscure, too, therefore, that too is of no help to insight. But there is no function of insight without applied thought. For insight accomplishes its own function with applied thought as its companion, as it is said (at Vism XVI, 99), ‘Understanding is not able, of its own nature, to define an object as impermanent, painful, non-self; but, when applied thought is present repeatedly striking, it can. For just as a money-changer who has a coin in his hand and wishes to look at it on all sides, cannot turn it over with the power of his eye alone, but he can look at it on all sides by turning it over with his finger-tips; so, indeed, understanding is not able, of its own nature, to define an object as impermanent, etc., but it is able, when a thing is given, to define it by means of applied thought, which has the characteristic of focusing, and the nature of beating and striking, as though hitting and turning over.’ That is why, because of the unhelpfulness of feeling and perception to insight, they are in certain instances set forth in the singular in order to show them by way of mere characteristic only, whereas applied thought in certain instances is set forth in the plural in order to show that there are as many kinds of applied thoughts as of insight” (Pa.tis-a 353).

[74]     Samodhaaneti = “brings together,” “combines”; it has here been rendered “brings to bear.” In pursuing this meditation as so far described, he is at the same time giving effect to all the things listed in this paragraph, which is repeated for all sixteen bases.

                  “`Combines’ means places as object, sets up as object; also in the absence of any work of bringing together, he brings together, just by means of the perfection of the development itself. ‘The domain’ is formations as object at the moment of insight, and Nibbaana as object at the moment of the path and moment of fruition. ‘The meaning of calm’ (samatha) is calm (sama.m) itself as the meaning (attha); or it is the meaning of calm (samass’attho)” (Pa.tis-a 353).

[75]     “The mental objects consisting of the faculties, the powers, and the enlightenment factors, are obtained at the moments of insight, path, and fruition; the path and the three purities only at the moments of path and fruition; liberation and clear vision and knowledge of destruction only at the moment of the path; deliverance and knowledge of non-arising only at the moment of fruition; the rest at the moment of insight—thus in this section on mental objects he brings to bear these mental objects in this object, and, excepting Nibbaana, the rest should be understood according as they apply” (Pa.tis-a 354)

[76]     “As regards the exposition of ‘short,’ ‘which takes a brief time’ means in a time called brief. The rest is as aforesaid” (Pa.tis-a 355).

[77]     “As regards the exposition of ‘experiencing the whole body,’ feeling which feels the object as agreeable or disagreeable is stated first for the purpose of easy grasping, owing to the grossness of feeling among the immaterial states; next, perception which grasps aspects in the province of feeling thus, ‘what he feels he perceives’ (M I 293); next, volition which forms by means of perception; next, sense-impression because of the passage, ‘touched he feels, touched he perceives, touched he wills’ (S IV 68); next attention which has the characteristic of being shared by all these; thus the formations aggregate is stated by volition and so on. So when three aggregates (i.e. feeling, perception, and formations) have been stated, the consciousness aggregate is also stated (by implication). ‘Mentality’ is of the kind aforesaid; ‘and the mentality body’; this is said, however, in order to exclude Nibbaana. Nibbaana is included by ‘mentality,’ but since insight into supramundane states has not been attained, the word ‘body’ excludes Nibbaana, since Nibbaana is not included in a collection. ‘And those (things) which are called the mental formations’; the mental formations being stated thus, ‘perception and feeling are mental properities; these things, being bound up with the mind, are mental formations’ (M I 301); they are here included in the mentality body, too, is what is said” (Pa.tis-a 355).

[78]     “‘Great primaries’ are earth, water, fire, and air. ‘The materiality derived from the four great primaries’ means materiality which occurs derived from, depending on, not apart from, the four great primaries; it is twenty-fourfold, namely, eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body-sensitivity, visible object, sound, odour, flavour, femininity, masculinity, vitality, physical base of mind, nutrition, bodily intimation, verbal intimation, space, physical agility, elasticity, tractability, growth, continuity, decay, and impermanence. ‘In-breath and out-breath’ are just the normal (breaths). Also the counterpart sign which has arisen dependent on those in-breaths and out-breaths has the same name, as in the case of the earth device (see Vism IV,31); and because of its resemblance to materiality it has the name ‘materiality’ as well as in the case of ‘he sees forms externally’ (M II 12), and so on. ‘And the sign for the binding (of mindfulness)’ is the place of contact of the in-breaths and out-breaths, which has become the sign for the binding of mindfulness. ‘And those things which are called the bodily formations’: the bodily formations being stated thus, ‘in-breaths and out-breaths are bodily properties, these things, being bound up with the body, are the bodily formations’ (M I 301); they are here included in the materiality body, is what is said” (Pa.tis-a 355).

[79]     “‘Those bodies are experienced’: at the moment of jhaanas the sign-body of the in-breaths and out-breaths, at the moment of insight the remaining materiality and immaterial bodies, are experienced as object; at the moment of the path, they are experienced as non-delusion. Also ‘through breathing in long,’ etc., is stated with reference to the insight and the path that have arisen in one who has obtained jhaana by means of in-breathing and out-breathing” (Pa.tis-a 355–56).

[80]     “‘Purity of conduct in the sense of restraint’ is just the restraint in jhaana, insight, and the path, which have arisen due to in-breathings and out-breathings stated as ‘experiencing the whole body.’ ‘Purity of consciousness in the sense of non-distraction’ is just non-distraction. ‘Purity of view in the sense of seeing’ is just understanding. ‘Restraint’ is simply the absence of evil in abstaining from it, and absence thereof during jhaana and insight” (Pa.tis-a356).

[81]     “As regards the exposition of ‘calming,’ and so on, ‘bodily properties’ means states in the material body; ‘bound up with the body’ means dependent on the body, when the body is there they come to be, when it is not, they do not. Therefore, as they are formed only by the body, they are bodily formations. ‘Calming’ means causing to be extinguished, to subside; by the word ‘calming,’ gross calming is implied. ‘Causing to cease’ means causing to cease through the non-arising of the gross formations. ‘Pacifying’ means inducing a peaceful state in the gross formations by means of change in a single continuity” (Pa.tis-a 356).

[82]     I.e. the wind of the breaths in the nostrils.

[83]     “‘The sign’ is an aspect of these sounds; and the sign of the sound is no other than the sound” (Pa.tis-a 358).

[84]     Cf. Dhs §9. “The rest of this base should be understood in the way already explained” (Pa.tis-a 358).

[85]     “‘Two kinds of bliss’ is said for the purpose of showing the two planes, tranquility and insight; for mental bliss belongs to the plane of tranquility and the plane of insight. ‘Bodily’ means of the sensitivity body; it is linked to that because it does not arise without it” (Pa.tis-a 358).

[86]     Cf. Dhs §10.

[87]     Cf. Dhs §6.

[88]     The same formula as that for defining rapture is used to define gladdening.

[89]     Cf. Dhs § 11.

[90]     “‘In the sense of rise and fall’: ‘the state of rise and fall’ is the meaning. And here ‘five aggregates’ is the characteristic of their nature, ‘rise and fall’ is the characteristic of alternation; ‘through absence after having become they are impermanent’ is what is stated by that. Hence, too, in the Commentary, after stating their rise and fall and change thus, ‘impermanence comes to be through the characteristic of being formed,’ also ‘absence after having become’ is said: ‘the quality of absence after having become is the characteristic of impermanence’ is what is stated by that” (Pa.tis-a 361).

[91]     See Pa.tis 55 (Ñaa.nakathaa): “He sees the arising of the materiality aggregate in the sense of conditioned arising thus: (1) with the arising of ignorance there is the arising of materiality; (2) with the arising of craving …; (3) … kamma …; (4) … nutriment there is the arising of materiality; and (5) one who sees the characteristic of birth sees the arising of materiality.” Thus these five characteristics apply in respect of each of the five aggregates, but in the cases of feeling, perception, and formations, substituting “sense-impression” for “nutriment,” and in the case of consciousness, substituting “mentality-materiality” for “nutriment.”

                  In the case of fall, “he sees the fall of the materiality aggregate in the sense of conditioned cessation thus: (1) with the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of materiality; (2) with the cessation of craving …; (3) … kamma …; (4) … nutriment there is the cessation of materiality; and (5) one who sees the characteristic of change sees the fall of materiality.” These also make twenty-five with the five aggregates (making the same substitutions). Both together make up the fifty. See also Section 14 on p.68.

[92]     These 201 states from “materiality” to “old-age-and-death” form the basic list of all states to be directly known, etc., in the first section of the Pa.tisambhidaa Ñaa.nakathaa. The list is frequently referred to later in the Pa.tisambhidaa, usually elided as “ruupa … jaraa-mara.na.m.” It forms a classified comprehensive list of phenomena in the round of rebirths. See also Vism XX, 6–12.

[93]     “Seeing danger in the materiality aggregate in the aforesaid sense of impermanence, etc., since starting the contemplation of dissolution; ‘fading away of materiality’ is Nibbaana, for, on arriving at Nibbaana, materiality fades away, ceases, by becoming not subject to further arising. ‘He is resolute in faith’: he is certain about that Nibbaana. ‘His mind is firmly decided’ means his mind is thoroughly decided, thoroughly fixed by way of object on the dissolution of materiality called destruction and fading away, and by way of hearsay (i.e. what he has not yet himself realized) on Nibbaana as the fading away of materiality called absolute fading away” (Pa.tis-a 361).

[94]     “The same applies to the contemplation of cessation but with the difference of the paragraph beginning ‘Seeing danger through ignorance in these ways.’ Herein, by showing the cessation of the dangers of the links of the dependent origination beginning with ignorance, the cessation of the dangers of materiality, etc., are shown also, because the latter do not exceed the limits of the former. And by this special clause the superiority of contemplation of cessation over contemplation of fading away is stated” (Pa.tis-a 361).

[95]     In order to understand Sections V to X, it is necessary to refer to the first twelve sections of the Pa.tisambhidaa Ñaa.nakathaa, chapter on knowledge, and to Vism, Chap. XXI. The Ñaa.nakathaa in its first sections analyses in successive stages of knowledge the progress from the first hearing about the Teaching to the attainment of path and fruition. These stages are:

               (1)    Knowledge of what is heard. One hears and learns about the Teaching.

               (2)    Knowledge of virtuous conduct. One begins to practise by cultivating virtue.

               (3)    Knowledge of concentration. Jhaana is attained.

               (4)    Knowledge regarding relation of states. The beginning of insight: all phenomena are seen to arise and cease due to the arising and cessation of conditions in accordance with dependent origination.

               (5)    Knowledge of mastery (of groups). All phenomena, grouped as past, future, and present, are seen as impermanent, painful, and non-self, and as arising and ceasing due to conditions.

               (6)    Knowledge of rise and fall (udayabbaya-ñaa.na). One contemplates the arising and passing away of all phenomena, in particular the five aggregates.

               (7)    Knowledge of insight (vipassanaa-ñaa.na). After contemplating phenomena as impermanent, etc., one now contemplates, in particular, the dissolution of the consciousness that has them as object. Consequently one feels revulsion for them.

               (8)    Knowledge of danger (aadiinava-ñaa.na). Seeing their dissolution, one contemplates the arising of all formed things as fearful and dangerous, and their non-arising as safety and peace.

               (9)    Knowledge of indifference to formations (saòkhaarupekkhaa-ñaa.na). Seeing all formations as fearful produces desire for deliverance from them, which impels one to review them fully in the light of the knowledge so far acquired. Owing to this, one achieves composure at the prospect of abandoning them.

               (10) Change-of-lineage (maturity) knowledge (gotrabhuu-ñaa.na). In achieving composure, one has reached the point from which there is no retreat; and immediately upon that follows change-of-lineage knowledge, which abandons and emerges from the formations externally, and whereby the first partial glimpse of Nibbaana is obtained.

               (11) Path knowledge (magga-ñaa.na). This follows immediately next, and consciousness makes Nibbaana its object. Path knowledge abandons and emerges from the formations both externally and internally. Right view and the other seven path factors emerge from wrong view, etc. This is immediately followed by fruition.

               (12) Fruition knowledge (phala-ñaa.na). The effort of emergence is now ceased.

               The Visuddhimagga, Chap. XXI, expands the series of insight knowledges (6)-(9) into the “eight knowledges and knowledge in conformity with the path.” (6) and (7) = (i) and (ii), respectively; (8) is expanded into (iii) knowledge of arising of fear (bhayat’-upa.t.thaana-ñaa.na), (iv) knowledge of contemplation of danger (aadiinavaanupassanaa-ñaa.na), and (v) knowledge of contemplation of revulsion (nibbidaanupassanaa-ñaa.na); (9) is expanded into (vi) knowledge of desire for deliverance (muccitukamyataa-ñaa.na), (vii) knowledge of contemplation of reflection (pa.tisaòkhaanupassanaa-ñaa.na), (viii) knowledge of indifference to formations, and (ix) conformity knowledge (anuloma-ñaa.na). Nos. (viii), (ix) (Vism), and (10) change-of-lineage are together known as “insight leading to emergence” (vu.t.thaanagaaminivipassanaa).

               Now, Section V, “Twenty-four Kinds of Knowledge through Concentration” corresponds to (3) above; Section VI, “Seventy-two Kinds of Knowledge through Insight” to (4); VII, “Eight Kinds of Knowledge of Revulsion” (nibbidaa-ñaa.na) corresponds to (5), (6), and (7); VIII, “Eight Kinds of Knowledge in Conformity with Revulsion” (nibbidaanuloma-ñaa.na) corresponds to (8); IX, “Eight Kinds of Knowledge of Tranquillization of Revulsion” (nibbidaapa.tipassaddhi-ñaa.na) corresponds to (9), (10), and (11); X, “Twenty-one Kinds of Knowledge of the Bliss of Deliverance” (vimuttisukha-ñaa.na) corresponds to twelve.

               It is the same chain of stages of insight knowledge, slightly differently grouped, which forms the substance of the fourth tetrad.

[96]     “‘He knows according to reality’ the formations by means of insight knowledge from mastery of groups up to contemplation of dissolution (i.e. Nos. (5) to (7) in note 95), and he ‘sees’ with that same vision of knowledge as though it were seen with the physical eye. Therefore it is called ‘knowledge of revulsion’; it is called knowledge of revulsion regarding formations, is what is said. Because the knowledge of arising of fear, etc., and of desire for deliverance, etc., have been handed down separately below, here only the kinds of insight knowledge as aforesaid should be understood as knowledge of revulsion” (Pa.tis-a 363).

[97]     “By the phrase, ‘The understanding of the appearance of fear,’ the three kinds of knowledge, namely, arising of fear, contemplation of danger, and contemplation of revulsion (see Nos. (iii) to (v) under (8) in note 5) are stated. Because these three have the same characteristic, they are called knowledge in conformity with revulsion, owing to their analogy with the knowledge of revulsion last mentioned” (Pa.tis-a 363).

[98]     “By the phrase, ‘The understanding which is reflection and composure’ are stated knowledge of desire for deliverance, of contemplation of reflection, and of indifference to formations ((vi) to (viii) under (9) in note 95). Because these three have the same characteristic, conformity knowledge and path knowledge are included by the term ‘reflection and composure’ as well. And it is because knowledge of indifference to formations and conformity knowledge have reached the acme of revulsion that they are called ‘knowledge of tranquillization of revulsion,’ owing to the abandoning of the work of producing revulsion. But it is perfectly correct that path knowledge is called knowledge of tranquillization of revulsion, because it arises in one who tranquillizes revulsion. So, omitting knowledge of desire for deliverance, which comes first, as though it belonged to the preceding knowledge in conformity with revulsion, etc., and taking the two last kinds of knowledge, ‘reflection and composure’ is said in order to include the path. For when desire for deliverance is stated, conformity knowledge is included but not path knowledge, since the latter is not called ‘desire for deliverance’; but it is called ‘composure,’ owing to composure in the accomplishment of its function. And in the commentary also the words ‘attainment’ and ‘fixing’ are used, and by taking this path knowledge as ‘fixing’ in Nibbaana it is called ‘composure.’ And it is by the word ‘composure,’ that path knowledge is also included. And knowledge in conformity with revulsion, as regards meaning, is also knowledge of revulsion. So, by its inclusion in knowledge of revulsion, its inclusion, too, is effected by the phrase ‘tranquillization of revulsion,’ without its inclusion as knowledge in conformity with revulsion (separately)” (Pa.tis-a 364).

[99]     “`Knowledge of the bliss of deliverance’ means knowledge associated with the bliss of deliverance due to fruition, and knowledge of reviewing as object the bliss of deliverance due to fruition” (Pa.tis-a 364).


 
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