Mindfulness of Breathing
(Anapanasati)

Buddhist texts from the Pali Canon and Commentaries

 Translated by

Bhikkhu Ñanamoli

Book Publication No: 502S

Copyright © Kandy, Buddhist Publication Society, (1952, 1998)
BPS Online Edition © (200
7)
Digital Transcription Source:
Buddhist Publication Society

For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted and redistributed in any medium. However, any such republication and redistribution is to be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and translations and other derivative works are to be clearly marked as such.


Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV

Part I

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammaa Sambuddhassa

Part I

The Discourse on Respiration-Mindfulness

(Aanaapaanasati Sutta—MN 118)

Introduction

Thus have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was living at Saavatthii, in the palace of Migaara’s mother, in the Eastern Park, together with many very well-known elder disciples-the Venerable Saariputta, the Venerable Mahaa-Moggallaana, the Venerable Mahaa-Kassapa, the Venerable Mahaa-Kaccaayana, the Venerable Mahaa-Ko.t.thita, the Venerable Mahaa-Kappina, the Venerable Mahaa-Cunda, the Venerable Anuruddha, the Venerable Revata, the Venerable Aananda, and other very well-known elder disciples. Now at that time the elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing the new bhikkhus: some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing ten new bhikkhus; some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing twenty new bhikkhus; some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing thirty new bhikkhus; some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing forty new bhikkhus. And these new bhikkhus, taught and instructed by the elder bhikkhus, successively achieved high distinction.[1]

And at that time, on the Assembly Day (uposatha) of the fifteenth, on the night of the Pavaara.naa ceremony,[2] when the moon was full, the Blessed One was seated in the open surrounded by the Order of bhikkhus. Then, surveying the silent Order of bhikkhus, he addressed the bhikkhus thus:

“I am content, bhikkhus, with this progress; I am content at heart, bhikkhus, with this progress. Therefore, strive still more strenuously to attain the unattained, to achieve the unachieved, to realize the unrealized.[3] I shall wait here at Saavatthii for the Komudii moon of the fourth month.”[4]

The bhikkhus of the countryside heard: “The Blessed One, it seems, will wait there at Saavatthii for the Komudii moon of the fourth month.” And those bhikkhus of the countryside left for Saavatthii to see the Blessed One. And the elder bhikkhus were still more strenuously teaching and instructing the new bhikkhus: some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing ten new bhikkhus: some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing twenty new bhikkhus; some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing thirty new bhikkhus; some elder bhikkhus were teaching and instructing forty new bhikkhus. And those new bhikkhus, taught and instructed by the elder bhikkhus, successively achieved high distinction.

Now, at that time, on the Assembly Day of the fifteenth, on the night of the Komudii moon of the fourth month when the moon was full, the Blessed One was seated in the open surrounded by the Order of bhikkhus. Then, surveying the silent Order of bhikkhus, he addressed the bhikkhus thus:

“Free from chatter bhikkhus is this community, free from idle talk, bhikkhus, is this community; it is purified and consists purely of heartwood.[5] Such, bhikkhus, is this Order of bhikkhus; such, bhikkhus, is this community.

“Such a community, bhikkhus, as is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of homage, as is an incomparable field of merit for the world—such, bhikkhus, is this Order of bhikkhus; such, bhikkhus, is this community.

“Such a community, bhikkhus, that a small gift given to it becomes great, and a great gift greater—such, bhikkhus, is this Order of bhikkhus; such, bhikkhus, is this community.

“Such a community, bhikkhus, as it would be hard for the world to see its like—such, bhikkhus, is this Order of bhikkhus; such, bhikkhus, is this community.

“Such a community, bhikkhus, as would be worth travelling many leagues with a knapsack to see—such, bhikkhus, is this Order of bhikkhus; such, bhikkhus, is this community.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who are arahats, in whom the cankers are destroyed, who have lived the life, done what is to be done, laid down the burden, reached the highest good, destroyed the fetters of being, and, through knowing rightly, are liberated—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who, with the destruction of five lower fetters,[6] will reappear spontaneously (in the Pure Abodes) and there attain complete extinction without ever returning here from that world—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who, with the destruction of three fetters,[7] and the attenuation of greed, hate, and delusion, are once-returners; returning once to this world, they will make an end of suffering—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who, with the destruction of three fetters, are stream-enterers, and being no more subject to states of woe (and) assured (of their future), are headed for full enlightenment—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the four foundations of mindfulness[8]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the four right efforts[9]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the four roads to power[10]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the five faculties[11]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the five powers[12]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the seven factors of enlightenment[13]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of the noble eightfold path[14]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of amity—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of compassion—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of altruistic joy—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of equanimity[15]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of meditation on the foul[16]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of perception of impermanence[17]—such bhikkhus, indeed, are there, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus.

“There are, bhikkhus, in this Order of bhikkhus, bhikkhus who dwell devoted to the practice of respiration-mindfulness.


Respiration-mindfulness

“Respiration-mindfulness, bhikkhus, developed and repeatedly practised, is of great fruit, of great benefit; respiration-mindfulness, bhikkhus, developed and repeatedly practised, perfects the four foundations of mindfulness; the four foundations of mindfulness, developed and repeatedly practised, perfect the seven enlightenment factors; the seven enlightenment factors, developed and repeatedly practised, perfect clear vision and deliverance.

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practised, is respiration-mindfulness of great fruit, of great benefit?


The Method: The Four Tetrads

“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, gone to the forest, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty place, sits down; having folded his legs crosswise, set his body erect, established mindfulness in front of him, ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

First Tetrad (Contemplation of the body)

      (i) “Breathing in long, he knows, ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, he knows, ‘I breathe out long.’

     (ii) “Breathing in short, he knows, ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, he knows, ‘I breathe out short.’

    (iii) “`Experiencing the whole body (of breath), I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

    (iv) “`Calming the bodily formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the bodily formation,’ I shall breathe out, thus he trains himself.[18]

Second Tetrad (Contemplation of feeling)

     (v) “`Experiencing rapture, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘experiencing rapture, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.[19]

    (vi) “`Experiencing bliss, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘experiencing bliss, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

   (vii) “`Experiencing the mental formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘experiencing the mental formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

   (viii) “`Calming the mental formation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the mental formation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Third Tetrad (Contemplation of mind)

    (ix) “`Experiencing the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘experiencing the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

     (x)   “`Gladdening the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘gladdening the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

    (xi) “`Concentrating the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘concentrating the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

   (xii) “`Liberating the mind, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘liberating the mind, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Fourth Tetrad (Contemplation of mental objects)

   (xiii) “`Contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

  (xiv) “`Contemplating fading away, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating fading away, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.[20]

   (xv) “`Contemplating cessation, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating cessation, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

  (xvi) “`Contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.[21]

         “That is how respiration-mindfulness, developed and repeatedly practised, is of great fruit, of great benefit.


Perfection of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practised, does respiration-mindfulness perfect the four foundations of mindfulness?

A. (i-iv) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, knows, ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, knows, ‘I breathe out long’; breathing in short, knows, ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, knows, ‘I breathe out short’; trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole (breath) body’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the whole (breath) body’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in calming the bodily-formation;’ trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out calming the bodily formations’—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.[22]

“I say that this, bhikkhus, is a certain body among the bodies, namely, respiration. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body in the body, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

B. (v-viii) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in experiencing rapture’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing rapture’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in experiencing bliss’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing bliss’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the mental formation’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the mental formation’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in calming the mental formation’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out calming the mental formation’—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“I say that this, bhikkhus, is a certain feeling (experience) among feelings (experiencings), namely, the giving attention completely to in-breathing and out-breathing. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

C. (ix-xii) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in gladdening the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out gladdening the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in concentrating the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out concentrating the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in liberating the mind’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out liberating the mind’—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“I do not say, bhikkhus, that there is development of respiration-mindfulness in one who is forgetful and does not clearly comprehend. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the mind in the mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

D. (xiii-xvi) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating impermanence’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating impermanence’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating fading away’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating fading away’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating cessation’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating cessation’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe in contemplating relinquishment’; trains thus, ‘I shall breathe out contemplating relinquishment’—on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“Having seen with understanding what is the abandoning of covetousness and grief, he becomes one who looks on with complete equanimity. That is why on that occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world.

“That is how respiration-mindfulness, developed and repeatedly practised, perfects the four foundations of mindfulness.


Perfection of the Seven Enlightenment Factors

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practised, do the four foundations of mindfulness perfect the seven enlightenment factors?

A.  (1) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having put away covetousness and grief regarding the world—on that occasion, unremitting mindfulness is established in him.

“On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, unremitting mindfulness is established in a bhikkhu—on that occasion the mindfulness enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“Abiding thus mindful, he investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it).

      (2) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, abiding thus mindful, a bhikkhu investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it)—on that occasion the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“In him who investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it), tireless energy is aroused.

      (3) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, in a bhikkhu who investigates, examines that state with understanding, and embarks upon a scrutiny (of it), tireless energy is aroused—on that occasion the energy enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“In him who has aroused energy, unworldly[23] rapture arises.

      (4) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, in a bhikkhu who has aroused energy, unworldly rapture arises—on that occasion the rapture enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“The body and mind of one whose mind is held in rapture, become tranquillized.

      (5) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, the body and the mind of a bhikkhu whose mind is held in rapture become tranquillized—on that occasion the tranquillity enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“The mind of one who is tranquillized in body and blissful becomes concentrated.

      (6) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, the mind of a bhikkhu who is tranquillized in body and blissful becomes concentrated—on that occasion the concentration enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

“He becomes one who looks with complete equanimity on the mind thus concentrated.

      (7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu becomes one who looks with complete equanimity on the mind thus concentrated—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor is aroused in him, and he develops it, and by development it comes to perfection in him.

B. (1)-(7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the feelings in the feelings …[24]—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor … comes to perfection in him.

C. (1)-(7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the mind in the mind …—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor … comes to perfection in him.

D. (1)-(7) “On whatever occasion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mental-objects in mental-objects …—on that occasion the equanimity enlightenment factor … comes to perfection in him.

“Thus developed, bhikkhus, thus repeatedly practised, the four foundations of mindfulness fulfil the seven enlightenment factors.


Perfection of Clear Vision and Deliverance

“And how developed, bhikkhus, how repeatedly practised, do the seven enlightenment factors perfect clear vision and deliverance?

      (1) “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu develops the mindfulness enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (2) “He develops the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (3) “He develops the energy enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (4) “He develops the rapture enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (5) “He develops the tranquillity enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (6) “He develops the concentration enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

      (7) “He develops the equanimity enlightenment factor dependent on seclusion, on fading away, on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

“Thus developed, bhikkhus, thus repeatedly practised, the seven factors of enlightenment perfect clear vision and deliverance.”

So said the Blessed One. Glad at heart, the bhikkhus rejoiced at his words.

 

Notes

Part I: The Discourse on Respiration-mindfulness

[1]    “Distinction” is used here in the sense of attainment or progress. “After the earlier distinction due to perfection of virtue, etc., they realized further distinction through preliminary contemplation-device practice, etc.” (M-a).

[2]       The Pavaara.naa ceremony is held at the end of the rainy season, during which season bhikkhus are obliged to undertake to reside in one dwelling for three months. It consists of an assembly of bhikkhus at which each member present invites (pavaareti) the Order to point out his faults committed during the preceding period. It is normally held at the end of the first three months of the rains (in the month of Assayuja = October), but can be postponed, as in this case, till a month later (i.e. the month of Kattika = November). The full-moon day is the last day of the month. For details see Vin I 157–78 and M-a I 93, II 150.

[3]       Namely, arahatship.

[4]       Komudi is the full moon of the month of Kattika, called Komudi on account of white water lilies (kumuda) said to blossom then. Cf. also Dhp 285.

[5]       Suddhaa, saare pati.t.thitaa: the same phrase occurs at M I 25 and I 488, where it is used in the simile of removal of sappy wood, etc., leaving only the heartwood.

[6]       The ten fetters (sa.myojana) are: (i) belief in a self, (ii) uncertainty, (iii) belief in rites and rituals, (iv) lust, (v) ill will, (vi) greed for fine-material existence, (vii) greed for immaterial existence, (viii) pride, (ix) agitation, (x) ignorance. The first five are the “lower” (orambhaagiya) fetters, which bind beings to rebirth in the sense-desire world; the second five are the “higher” (uddhambhaagiya) fetters, which bind beings to rebirth in the fine-material and immaterial worlds.

[7]       The first three of the aforesaid fetters.

[8]       See MN 10.

[9]       The efforts to restrain and abandon the unprofitable, and the efforts to develop and maintain the profitable. See DN No. 33 and MN 141.

[10]     Or bases of success (iddhipaada). They are: concentration of zeal, with the will to give this precedence; concentration of energy…; concentration of (purity of) consciousness…; concentration of investigation, with the will to give this precedence. See MN 16 and DN 33.

[11]     The faculties of faith (or confidence), energy, mindfulness, concentration, and understanding—“faculty” in the sense of predominance. See S V 201.

[12]     The same five as for the faculties, but “power” in the sense of unshakability. See S V 219.

[13]     The enlightenment factors of mindfulness, investigation-of-states, energy, rapture, tranquility, concentration, and equanimity. See S V 63.

[14]     From the “four foundations of mindfulness” to the “eight path factors” are what are known in the commentaries as “the thirty-seven states partaking of enlightenment.”

[15]     This and the previous three are known as the “four divine abodes.” See M I 38, Vism, Ch. IX.

[16]     The meditation on the foul (asubha) consists of the nine “cemetery contemplations,” or the contemplation of the parts of the body, given at M I 58. See also Vism. Ch. VI, VIII.

[17]     “Here insight is meant by perception” (M-a).

[18]     For “bodily formation” and “mental formation” see M I 301: “In-and-out breathing, Visaakha, are the bodily formation; applied and sustained thought are the verbal formation; and feeling and perception are the mental formation.” For this tetrad, compare M I 56, where there is added the simile of the turner: “Just as a skilled turner or turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, knows, ‘I make a long turn,’ or making a short turn knows, ‘I make a short turn.’ “

[19]     There is no satisfactory rendering of the word piiti. “Absorbing interest” is too limited; “rapture” has the disadvantage of its association with Western mysticism, but is probably the least unsatisfactory. In the commentaries, piiti is compared to what is felt by an exhausted traveller on seeing cool water ahead, while sukha (bliss) is compared to his feeling when enjoying the cool water.

[20]     Viraaga also has no satisfactory rendering. Raaga (originally meaning “colour,” “dye”) is used for “greed” or “lust”; viraaga is the fading away of the colour, the disappearance of greed or lust. It occurs frequently in the suttas in the sequence nibbidaa, viraaga, nirodha, pa.tinissagga, i.e. revulsion (or turning away from the round of rebirths), dispassion (or fading away of greed), cessation, relinquishment.

[21]     These four tetrads are found also at M I 425, at A V 111, in many suttas in SN 54, and at Pa.tis I 95.

[22]      “Herein what is ‘the world’? That very body is the world, and the five aggregates (as objects) of clinging are the world; this is called the world” (Vbh 195, Satipa.t.thaana Vibhaòga).

[23]    Niraamisa, “not of the flesh.” On the subject of aamisa and niraamisa see M I 12, 59; M-a I 89, 279.

[24]     For B, C, and D, repeat (1)-(7) of A.

 

— §§§ —


Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV


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